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  • Retinal detachment
    Most cases of retinal detachment are due to development of one or more peripheral retinal tears or holes (rhegmatogenous retinal detachment). This is usually spontaneous, related to degenerative changes in the vitreous
  • Orbital cellulitis
    Orbital cellulitis is an infection of the fat and muscles around the eye. It affects the eyelids, eyebrows, and cheeks. Orbital cellulitis is characterized by fever, proptosis, restriction of extraocular movements, and swelling with redness of the lids
  • Optic disk swelling
    Optic nerve lesions causing disk swelling include anterior ischemic optic neuropathy; optic neuritis; optic nerve sheath meningioma; and infiltration by sarcoidosis, leukemia, or lymphoma
  • Ocular motor cranial nerve palsies
    In complete third nerve palsy, there is ptosis with a divergent and slightly depressed eye. Extraocular movements are restricted in all directions except laterally (preserved lateral rectus function)
  • Incision and drainage of abscesses
    Incision and drainage of an abscess are indicated if there is evidence of localized pus: throbbing pain; hot, local swelling with tight, shiny skin; and marked tenderness.
  • Wound debridement, care and healing
    Wound is defined as a break in the normal continuity of a tissue. It is caused by a transfer of any form of energy into the body which can be either to an externally visible structure like the skin or deeper structures like muscles, tendons or internal organs.
  • Suture material and suturing
    Catgut remains the most popular absorbable material because of its pliability and superior handling qualities. Chromic catgut lasts for 2 or 3 weeks in the tissues and is excellent for ligatures and for approximating tissues
  • General surgery: Prevention of transmission of HIV
    All body fluids from a person infected (or suspected of being infected) with HIV should be considered potentially infectious. HIV may be transmitted: (1) by needles or sharp instruments contaminated with blood or body fluids and not properly sterilized

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