Ammonium Chloride

Ammonium Chloride

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Nonproprietary Names: BP: Ammonium ChloridePhEur: Ammonium ChlorideUSP: Ammonium chloride

Synonyms

Ammonium Chloride

Ammonii chloridum; ammonium muriate; E510; sal ammoniac; salmiac.

Chemical Name and CAS Registry Number: Ammonium chloride [12125-02-9]

Empirical Formula and Molecular Weight: NH4Cl 53.49

Functional Category

Acidifying agent; therapeutic agent.

Applications in Pharmaceutical Formulation or Technology

Ammonium chloride is used as an acidifying agent in oral formulations. It is also used as a food additive and antiseptic agent. Ammonium chloride is used in the treatment of severe metabolic alkalosis to maintain the urine at an acid pH in the treatment of some urinary tract disorders or in forced acid diuresis. It is also used as an expectorant in cough medicines. Ammonium chloride occurs as colorless, odorless crystals or crystal masses. It is a white, granular powder with a cooling, saline taste. It is hygroscopic and has a tendency to cake.

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Typical Properties

Acidity/alkalinity: pH = 4.5–5.5 (5.5% w/w aqueous solutions at 258°C)Density (bulk) 0.6–0.9 g/cm3Hygroscopicity:  Hygroscopic with potential to cake.Melting point: Decomposes at 3388°C; sublimes without melting.Solubility Soluble in water; hydrochloric acid and sodium chloride decrease its solubility in water. Also soluble in glycerin; sparingly soluble in methanol and ethanol. Almost insoluble in acetone, ether, and ethyl acetate.Specific gravity: 1.527 g/cm3Vapor pressure: 133.3 Pa (1 mmHg) at 1608°C

Method of Manufacture

Ammonium chloride is prepared commercially by reacting ammonia with hydrochloric acid.

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