ANORO ELLIPTA

ANORO ELLIPTA (umeclidinium and vilanterol inhalation powder), for oral inhalation use

ANORO ELLIPTA

ANORO ELLIPTA is an inhalation powder drug product for delivery of a combination of umeclidinium (an anticholinergic) and vilanterol (a LABA) to patients by oral inhalation.

Umeclidinium bromide has the chemical name 1-[2-(benzyloxy)ethyl]-4­(hydroxydiphenylmethyl)-1-azoniabicyclo[2.2.2]octane bromide.

Umeclidinium bromide is a white powder with a molecular weight of 508.5, and the empirical formula is C29H34NO2•Br (as a quaternary ammonium bromide compound). It is slightly soluble in water.

Vilanterol trifenatate has the chemical name triphenylacetic acid-4-{(1R)-2-[(6-{2-[(2,6­dicholorobenzyl)oxy]ethoxy}hexyl)amino]-1-hydroxyethyl}-2-(hydroxymethyl)phenol (1:1).

Vilanterol trifenatate is a white powder with a molecular weight of 774.8, and the empirical formula is C24H33Cl2NO5•C20H16O2. It is practically insoluble in water.

ANORO ELLIPTA INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ANORO ELLIPTA is indicated for the maintenance treatment of patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Limitations of Use

ANORO ELLIPTA is NOT indicated for the relief of acute bronchospasm or for the treatment of asthma. The safety and effectiveness of ANORO ELLIPTA in asthma have not been established.

ANORO ELLIPTA Mechanism of Action

ANORO ELLIPTA: ANORO ELLIPTA contains both umeclidinium and vilanterol. The mechanisms of action described below for the individual components apply to ANORO ELLIPTA. These drugs represent 2 different classes of medications (an anticholinergic and a LABA) each having different effects on clinical and physiological indices.

Umeclidinium: Umeclidinium is a long-acting muscarinic antagonist, which is often referred to as an anticholinergic. It has similar affinity to the subtypes of muscarinic receptors M1 to M5. In the airways, it exhibits pharmacological effects through inhibition of M3 receptor at the smooth muscle leading to bronchodilation. The competitive and reversible nature of antagonism was shown with human and animal origin receptors and isolated organ preparations. In preclinical in vitro as well as in vivo studies, prevention of methacholine- and acetylcholine-induced bronchoconstrictive effects was dose-dependent and lasted longer than 24 hours. The clinical relevance of these findings is unknown. The bronchodilation following inhalation of umeclidinium is predominantly a site-specific effect.

Vilanterol: Vilanterol is a LABA. In vitro tests have shown the functional selectivity of vilanterol was similar to salmeterol. The clinical relevance of this in vitro finding is unknown.

Although beta2-receptors are the predominant adrenergic receptors in bronchial smooth muscle and beta1-receptors are the predominant receptors in the heart, there are also beta2-receptors in the human heart comprising 10% to 50% of the total beta-adrenergic receptors. The precise function of these receptors has not been established, but they raise the possibility that even highly selective beta2-agonists may have cardiac effects.

The pharmacologic effects of beta2-adrenergic agonist drugs, including vilanterol, are at least in part attributable to stimulation of intracellular adenyl cyclase, the enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to cyclic-3′,5′-adenosine monophosphate (cyclic AMP). Increased cyclic AMP levels cause relaxation of bronchial smooth muscle and inhibition of release of mediators of immediate hypersensitivity from cells, especially from mast cells.

ANORO ELLIPTA DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The recommended dosage of ANORO ELLIPTA for maintenance treatment of COPD is 62.5 mcg umeclidinium and 25 mcg vilanterol (1 actuation of ANORO ELLIPTA 62.5/25 mcg) once daily by oral inhalation.

  • ANORO ELLIPTA should be used at the same time every day. Do not use ANORO ELLIPTA more than 1 time every 24 hours.
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  • No dosage adjustment is required for geriatric patients, patients with renal impairment, or patients with moderate hepatic impairment

ANORO ELLIPTA CONTRAINDICATIONS

ANORO ELLIPTA is contraindicated in:

  • patients with severe hypersensitivity to milk proteins or who have demonstrated hypersensitivity to umeclidinium, vilanterol, or any of the excipients.
  • use of a long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist (LABA), including vilanterol, one of the active ingredients in ANORO ELLIPTA, without an inhaled corticosteroid (ICS), in patients with asthma. ANORO ELLIPTA is not indicated for the treatment of asthma.

ANORO ELLIPTA WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Serious Asthma-Related Events – Hospitalizations, Intubations, Death: The safety and effectiveness of ANORO ELLIPTA in patients with asthma have not been established. ANORO ELLIPTA is not indicated for the treatment of asthma.

Use of LABA as monotherapy (without ICS) for asthma is associated with an increased risk of asthma-related death. Available data from controlled clinical trials also suggest that use of LABA as monotherapy increases the risk of asthma-related hospitalization in pediatric and adolescent patients. These findings are considered a class effect of LABA monotherapy. When LABA are used in fixed-dose combination with ICS, data from large clinical trials do not show a significant increase in the risk of serious asthma-related events (hospitalizations, intubations, death) compared with ICS alone.

Deterioration of Disease and Acute Episodes: ANORO ELLIPTA should not be initiated in patients during rapidly deteriorating or potentially life-threatening episodes of COPD. ANORO ELLIPTA has not been studied in subjects with acutely deteriorating COPD. The initiation of ANORO ELLIPTA in this setting is not appropriate.

If ANORO ELLIPTA no longer controls symptoms of bronchoconstriction; the patient’s inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonist becomes less effective; or the patient needs more short-acting beta2-agonist than usual, these may be markers of deterioration of disease. In this setting, re-evaluate the patient and the COPD treatment regimen at once. The daily dose of ANORO ELLIPTA should not be increased. Increasing use of inhaled, short-acting beta2-agonists is a signal of deteriorating disease. In this situation, the patient requires immediate re-evaluation with reassessment of the treatment regimen, giving special consideration to the need for additional therapeutic options. Patients should not use more than 1 inhalation of ANORO ELLIPTA once daily.

Avoid Excessive Use of ANORO ELLIPTA and Avoid Use with Other Long-acting Beta2-agonists: ANORO ELLIPTA should not be used more often than recommended, at higher doses than recommended, or in conjunction with other therapies containing LABAs, as an overdose may result. Clinically significant cardiovascular effects and fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs. Patients using ANORO ELLIPTA should not use another therapy containing a LABA (e.g., salmeterol, formoterol fumarate, arformoterol tartrate, indacaterol) for any reason.

Drug Interactions with Strong Cytochrome P450 3A4 Inhibitors: Caution should be exercised when considering the coadministration of ANORO ELLIPTA with ketoconazole and other known strong cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors (including, but not limited to, ritonavir, clarithromycin, conivaptan, indinavir, itraconazole, lopinavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, troleandomycin, voriconazole) because increased cardiovascular adverse effects may occur.

Paradoxical Bronchospasm: As with other inhaled therapies, ANORO ELLIPTA can produce paradoxical bronchospasm, which may be life threatening. If paradoxical bronchospasm occurs following dosing with ANORO ELLIPTA, it should be treated immediately with an inhaled, short-acting bronchodilator; ANORO ELLIPTA should be discontinued immediately; and alternative therapy should be instituted.

Hypersensitivity Reactions, including Anaphylaxis: Hypersensitivity reactions such as anaphylaxis, angioedema, rash, and urticaria may occur after administration of ANORO ELLIPTA. Discontinue ANORO ELLIPTA if such reactions occur. There have been reports of anaphylactic reactions in patients with severe milk protein allergy after inhalation of other powder medications containing lactose; therefore, patients with severe milk protein allergy should not use ANORO ELLIPTA.

Cardiovascular Effects: Vilanterol, like other beta2-agonists, can produce a clinically significant cardiovascular effect in some patients as measured by increases in pulse rate, systolic or diastolic blood pressure, and also cardiac arrhythmias, such as supraventricular tachycardia and extrasystoles. If such effects occur, ANORO ELLIPTA may need to be discontinued. In addition, beta-agonists have been reported to produce electrocardiographic changes, such as flattening of the T wave, prolongation of the QTc interval, and ST segment depression, although the clinical significance of these findings is unknown. Fatalities have been reported in association with excessive use of inhaled sympathomimetic drugs.

ANORO ELLIPTA, like other sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with cardiovascular disorders, especially coronary insufficiency, cardiac arrhythmias, and hypertension.

Coexisting Conditions: ANORO ELLIPTA, like all therapies containing sympathomimetic amines, should be used with caution in patients with convulsive disorders or thyrotoxicosis and in those who are unusually responsive to sympathomimetic amines. Doses of the related beta2-adrenoceptor agonist albuterol, when administered intravenously, have been reported to aggravate preexisting diabetes mellitus and ketoacidosis.

Worsening of Narrow-Angle Glaucoma: ANORO ELLIPTA should be used with caution in patients with narrow-angle glaucoma. Prescribers and patients should also be alert for signs and symptoms of acute narrow-angle glaucoma (e.g., eye pain or discomfort, blurred vision, visual halos or colored images in association with red eyes from conjunctival congestion and corneal edema). Instruct patients to consult a healthcare provider immediately if any of these signs or symptoms develop.

Worsening of Urinary Retention: ANORO ELLIPTA, like all therapies containing an anticholinergic, should be used with caution in patients with urinary retention. Prescribers and patients should be alert for signs and symptoms of urinary retention (e.g., difficulty passing urine, painful urination), especially in patients with prostatic hyperplasia or bladder-neck obstruction. Instruct patients to consult a healthcare provider immediately if any of these signs or symptoms develop.

Hypokalemia and Hyperglycemia: Beta-adrenergic agonist therapies may produce significant hypokalemia in some patients, possibly through intracellular shunting, which has the potential to produce adverse cardiovascular effects. The decrease in serum potassium is usually transient, not requiring supplementation. Beta-agonist therapies may produce transient hyperglycemia in some patients. In 4 clinical trials of 6-month duration evaluating ANORO ELLIPTA in subjects with COPD, there was no evidence of a treatment effect on serum glucose or potassium.

ANORO ELLIPTA DRUG INTERACTIONS

Inhibitors of Cytochrome P450 3A4: Vilanterol is a substrate of CYP3A4. Concomitant administration of the strong CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole increases the systemic exposure to vilanterol. Caution should be exercised when considering the coadministration of ANORO ELLIPTA with ketoconazole and other known strong CYP3A4 inhibitors.

Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors, Tricyclic Antidepressants, and QTc Prolonging Drugs: Vilanterol, like other beta2-agonists, should be administered with extreme caution to patients being treated with monoamine oxidase inhibitors, tricyclic antidepressants, or drugs known to prolong the QTc interval or within 2 weeks of discontinuation of such agents, because the effect of adrenergic agonists on the cardiovascular system may be potentiated by these agents. Drugs that are known to prolong the QTc interval have an increased risk of ventricular arrhythmias.

Beta-adrenergic Receptor Blocking Agents: Beta-blockers not only block the pulmonary effect of beta-agonists, such as vilanterol, but may also produce severe bronchospasm in patients with COPD. Therefore, patients with COPD should not normally be treated with beta-blockers. However, under certain circumstances, there may be no acceptable alternatives to the use of beta-adrenergic blocking agents for these patients; cardioselective beta-blockers could be considered, although they should be administered with caution.

Non–Potassium-Sparing Diuretics: The electrocardiographic changes and/or hypokalemia that may result from the administration of non–potassium-sparing diuretics (such as loop or thiazide diuretics) can be acutely worsened by beta-agonists, especially when the recommended dose of the beta-agonist is exceeded. Although the clinical significance of these effects is not known, caution is advised in the coadministration of beta-agonists with non–potassium-sparing diuretics.

Anticholinergics: There is potential for an additive interaction with concomitantly used anticholinergic medicines. Therefore, avoid coadministration of ANORO ELLIPTA with other anticholinergic-containing drugs as this may lead to an increase in anticholinergic adverse effects.

ANORO ELLIPTA USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy: There are insufficient data on the use of ANORO ELLIPTA or its individual components, umeclidinium and vilanterol, in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. In animal reproduction studies, umeclidinium administered via inhalation or subcutaneously to pregnant rats and rabbits was not associated with adverse effects on embryofetal development at exposures approximately 50 and 200 times, respectively, the human exposure at the maximum recommended human daily inhaled dose (MRHDID). Vilanterol administered via inhalation to pregnant rats and rabbits produced no fetal structural abnormalities at exposures approximately 70 times the MRHDID.

Lactation: There is no information available on the presence of umeclidinium or vilanterol in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. Umeclidinium was detected in the plasma of offspring of lactating rats treated with umeclidinium suggesting its presence in maternal milk.  The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for ANORO ELLIPTA and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from umeclidinium or vilanterol or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of ANORO ELLIPTA have not been established in pediatric patients. ANORO ELLIPTA is not indicated for use in pediatric patients.

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Geriatric Use: Based on available data, no adjustment of the dosage of ANORO ELLIPTA in geriatric patients is necessary, but greater sensitivity in some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

Clinical trials of ANORO ELLIPTA for COPD included 2,143 subjects aged 65 years and older and 478 subjects aged 75 years and older. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects.

Hepatic Impairment: Patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score of 7-9) showed no relevant increases in Cmax or AUC, nor did protein binding differ between subjects with moderate hepatic impairment and their healthy controls. Studies in subjects with severe hepatic impairment have not been performed.

Renal Impairment: There were no significant increases in either umeclidinium or vilanterol exposure in subjects with severe renal impairment (CrCl <30 mL/min) compared with healthy subjects. No dosage adjustment is required in patients with renal impairment.

ANORO ELLIPTA OVERDOSAGE

ANORO ELLIPTA contains both umeclidinium and vilanterol; therefore, the risks associated with overdosage for the individual components described below apply to ANORO ELLIPTA. Treatment of overdosage consists of discontinuation of ANORO ELLIPTA together with institution of appropriate symptomatic and/or supportive therapy. The judicious use of a cardioselective beta-receptor blocker may be considered, bearing in mind that such medicine can produce bronchospasm. Cardiac monitoring is recommended in cases of overdosage.

Umeclidinium

High doses of umeclidinium may lead to anticholinergic signs and symptoms.

Vilanterol

The expected signs and symptoms with overdosage of vilanterol are those of excessive beta-adrenergic stimulation and/or occurrence or exaggeration of any of the signs and symptoms of beta-adrenergic stimulation (e.g., seizures, angina, hypertension or hypotension, tachycardia with rates up to 200 beats/min, arrhythmias, nervousness, headache, tremor, muscle cramps, dry mouth, palpitation, nausea, dizziness, fatigue, malaise, insomnia, hyperglycemia, hypokalemia, metabolic acidosis). As with all inhaled sympathomimetic medicines, cardiac arrest and even death may be associated with an overdose of vilanterol.

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