VANCOCIN® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP)

VANCOCIN® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP)

Vancocin® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP) is a lyophilized powder, for preparing intravenous (IV) infusions, in vials each containing the equivalent of 500 mg or 1 g vancomycin base. 500 mg of the base are equivalent to 0.34 mmol. When reconstituted with Sterile Water for Injection to a concentration of 50 mg/mL, the pH of the solution is between 2.5 and 4.5. This product is oxygen sensitive. Vancocin® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP) should be administered intravenously in diluted solution.

 Vancomycin is a tricyclic glycopeptide antibiotic derived from Amycolatopasis orientalis (formerly Nocardia orientals). The chemical name for vancomycin hydrochloride is 3S[3R*,6S*(S*),7S*,22S*,23R*,26R*,36S*,38aS*]]-3-(2-Amino-2-oxoethyl)-44-[[2-O-(3-amino2,3,6-trideoxy-3-C-methyl-α-L-lyxo-hexopyranosyl)-ß-D-glucopyranosyl]oxy]-10,19-dichloro2,3,4,5,6,7,23,24,25,26,36,37,38,38a-tetradecahydro-7,22,28,30,32-pentahydroxy-6-[[4-methyl2-(methylamino)-1-oxopentyl]amino]-2,5,24,38,39-pentaoxo-22H-8,11:18,21-dietheno-23,36(iminomethano)-13,16:31,35-dimetheno-1H,16H-[1,6,9]oxadiazacyclohexadecino[4,5m][10,2,16]-benzoxadiazacyclotetracosine-26-carboxylic acid, monohydrochloride. The molecular formula is C66H75Cl2N9O24• HCl and the molecular weight is 1,485.74.

MICROBIOLOGY

The bactericidal action of vancomycin results primarily from inhibition of cell-wall biosynthesis. In addition, vancomycin alters bacterial-cell-membrane permeability and RNA synthesis. There is no cross-resistance between vancomycin and other antibiotics. Vancomycin is not active in vitro against gram-negative bacilli, mycobacteria, or fungi.

Synergy

The combination of vancomycin and an aminoglycoside acts synergistically in vitro against many strains of Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus bovis, enterococci, and the viridans group streptococci.

Vancomycin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections.

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms

  • Diphtheroids Enterococci (e.g., Enterococcus faecalis) Staphylococci, including Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis (including heterogeneous methicillin-resistant strains)
  • Streptococcus bovis
  • Viridans group streptococci

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms

  • Listeria monocytogenes Streptococcus pyogenes Streptococcus pneumoniae (including penicillin-resistant strains) Streptococcus agalactiae

Anaerobic gram-positive microorganisms

  • Actinomyces species
  • Lactobacillus species

Susceptibility Testing

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Vancocin® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP) is indicated for the treatment of serious or severe infections caused by susceptible strains of methicillin-resistant (β-lactamresistant) staphylococci. It is indicated for penicillin-allergic patients, for patients who cannot receive or who have failed to respond to other drugs, including the penicillins or cephalosporins, and for infections caused by vancomycin-susceptible organisms that are resistant to other antimicrobial drugs. Vancocin® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP) is indicated for initial therapy when methicillin-resistant staphylococci are suspected, but after susceptibility data are available, therapy should be adjusted accordingly.

Vancocin® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP) is effective in the treatment of staphylococcal endocarditis. Its effectiveness has been documented in other infections due to staphylococci, including septicemia, bone infections, lower respiratory tract infections, skin and skin structure infections. When staphylococcal infections are localized and purulent, antibiotics are used as adjuncts to appropriate surgical measures.

Vancocin® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP) has been reported to be effective alone or in combination with an aminoglycoside for endocarditis caused by S. viridans or S. bovis. For endocarditis caused by enterococci (e.g., E. faecalis), vancomycin has been reported to be effective only in combination with an aminoglycoside.

Vancocin® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP) has been reported to be effective for the treatment of diphtheroid endocarditis. Vancocin® HCl (Vancomycin Hydrochloride for Injection USP) has been used successfully in combination with either rifampin, an aminoglycoside, or both in early-onset prosthetic valve endocarditis caused by S. epidermidis or diphtheroids.

Specimens for bacteriologic cultures should be obtained in order to isolate and identify causative organisms and to determine their susceptibilities to vancomycin.

The parenteral form of vancomycin hydrochloride may be administered orally for treatment of antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis produced by C. difficile and for staphylococcal enterocolitis. Parenteral administration of vancomycin hydrochloride alone is of unproven benefit for these indications. Vancomycin is not effective by the oral route for other types of infections.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to this antibiotic.

WARNINGS

Infusion Reactions: Rapid bolus administration (e.g., over several minutes) may be associated with exaggerated hypotension, including shock and rarely cardiac arrest.

Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection should be administered in a diluted solution over a period of not less than 60 minutes to avoid rapid-infusion-related reactions. Stopping the infusion usually results in prompt cessation of these reactions.

Nephrotoxicity: Systemic vancomycin exposure may result in acute kidney injury (AKI). The risk of AKI increases as systemic exposure/serum levels increase. Monitor renal function in all patients, especially patients with underlying renal impairment, patients with co-morbidities that predispose to renal impairment, and patients receiving concomitant therapy with a drug known to be nephrotoxic.

Ototoxicity: Ototoxicity has occurred in patients receiving vancomycin hydrochloride for injection. It may be transient or permanent. It has been reported mostly in patients who have been given excessive doses, who have an underlying hearing loss, or who are receiving concomitant therapy with another ototoxic agent, such as an aminoglycoside. Vancomycin should be used with caution in patients with renal insufficiency because the risk of toxicity is appreciably increased by high, prolonged blood concentrations.

Severe Dermatologic Reactions: Severe dermatologic reactions such as toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS), drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), and linear IgA bullous dermatosis (LABD) have been reported in association with the use of vancomycin. Cutaneous signs or symptoms reported include skin rashes, mucosal lesions, and blisters.

Discontinue vancomycin hydrochloride for injection at the first appearance of signs and symptoms of TEN, SJS, DRESS, AGEP, or LABD.

Clostridium Difficile Associated Diarrhea (CDAD): Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including vancomycin hydrochloride for injection, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

Hemorrhagic Occlusive Retinal Vasculitis (HORV): Hemorrhagic occlusive retinal vasculitis, including permanent loss of vision, occurred in patients receiving intracameral or intravitreal administration of vancomycin during or after cataract surgery. The safety and efficacy of vancomycin administered by the intracameral or the intravitreal route have not been established by adequate and well-controlled trials. Vancomycin is not indicated for the prophylaxis of endophthalmitis.

Drug Interactions

Concomitant administration of vancomycin and anesthetic agents has been associated with erythema and histamine-like flushing and anaphylactoid reactions.

Monitor renal function in patients receiving vancomycin and concurrent and/or sequential systemic or topical use of other potentially, neurotoxic and/or nephrotoxic drugs, such as amphotericin B, aminoglycosides, bacitracin, polymixin B, colistin, viomycin, or cisplatin.

Pregnancy: Teratogenic Effects

Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with vancomycin. It is not known whether vancomycin can affect reproduction capacity. In a controlled clinical study, the potential ototoxic and nephrotoxic effects of vancomycin on infants were evaluated when the drug was administered to pregnant women for serious staphylococcal infections complicating intravenous drug abuse.

Vancomycin was found in cord blood. No sensorineural hearing loss or nephrotoxicity attributable to vancomycin was noted. One infant whose mother received vancomycin in the third trimester experienced conductive hearing loss that was not attributed to the administration of vancomycin. Because the number of patients treated in this study was limited and vancomycin was administered only in the second and third trimesters, it is not known whether vancomycin causes fetal harm. Vancomycin should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.

Nursing Mothers: Vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when vancomycin hydrochloride for injection is administered to a nursing woman. Because of the potential for adverse events, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or to discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

Pediatric Use: In pediatric patients, it may be appropriate to confirm desired vancomycin serum concentrations. Concomitant administration of vancomycin and anesthetic agents has been associated with erythema and histamine-like flushing in pediatric patients.

Geriatric Use: The natural decrement of glomerular filtration with increasing age may lead to elevated vancomycin serum concentrations if dosage is not adjusted. Vancomycin dosage schedules should be adjusted in elderly patients.

OVERDOSAGE

Supportive care is advised, with maintenance of glomerular filtration. Vancomycin is poorly removed by dialysis. Hemofiltration and hemoperfusion with polysulfone resin have been reported to result in increased vancomycin clearance. The median lethal intravenous dose is 319 mg/kg in rats and 400 mg/kg in mice.

To obtain up-to-date information about the treatment of overdose, a good resource is your certified Regional Poison Control Center. Telephone numbers of certified poison control centers are listed in the Physicians’ Desk Reference (PDR). In managing overdosage, consider the possibility of multiple drug overdoses, interaction among drugs, and unusual drug kinetics in your patient.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Infusion-related events are related to both the concentration and the rate of administration of vancomycin. Concentrations of no more than 5 mg/mL and rates of no more than 10 mg/min, are recommended in adults (see also age-specific recommendations). In selected patients in need of fluid restriction, a concentration up to 10 mg/mL may be used; use of such higher concentrations may increase the risk of infusion-related events. An infusion rate of 10 mg/min or less is associated with fewer infusion-related events. Infusion-related events may occur, however, at any rate or concentration.

Patients With Normal Renal Function

Adults: The usual daily intravenous dose is 2 g divided either as 500 mg every 6 hours or 1 g every 12 hours. Each dose should be administered at no more than 10 mg/min or over a period of at least 60 minutes, whichever is longer. Other patient factors, such as age or obesity, may call for modification of the usual intravenous daily dose.

Pediatric patients: The usual intravenous dosage of vancomycin is 10 mg/kg per dose given every 6 hours. Each dose should be administered over a period of at least 60 minutes. Close monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin may be warranted in these patients.

Neonates: In pediatric patients up to the age of 1 month, the total daily intravenous dosage may be lower. In neonates, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg is suggested, followed by 10 mg/kg every 12 hours for neonates in the 1st week of life and every 8 hours thereafter up to the age of 1 month. Each dose should be administered over 60 minutes. In premature infants, vancomycin clearance decreases as postconceptional age decreases. Therefore, longer dosing intervals may be necessary in premature infants. Close monitoring of serum concentrations of vancomycin is recommended in these patients.

DOSAGE TABLE FOR VANCOMYCIN IN PATIENTS WITH IMPAIRED RENAL FUNCTION (Adapted from Moellering et al.1)

Creatinine Clearance mL/minVancomycin Dose mg/24 h
1001,545
901,390
801,235
701,080
60925
50770
40620
30465
20310
10155

The initial dose should be no less than 15 mg/kg, even in patients with mild to moderate renal insufficiency. The table is not valid for functionally anephric patients. For such patients, an initial dose of 15 mg/kg of body weight should be given to achieve prompt therapeutic serum concentrations. The dose required to maintain stable concentrations is 1.9 mg/kg/24 hr.

When only serum creatinine is known, the following formula (based on sex, weight and age of the patient) may be used to calculate creatinine clearance. Calculated creatinine clearances (mL/min) are only estimates. The creatinine clearance should be measured promptly.

For Oral Administration

Oral vancomycin is used in treating antibiotic-associated pseudomembranous colitis caused by

C. difficile and for staphylococcal enterocolitis. Vancomycin is not effective by the oral route for other types of infections. The usual adult total daily dosage is 500 mg to 2 g given in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days. The total daily dose in children is 40 mg/kg of body weight in 3 or 4 divided doses for 7 to 10 days. The total daily dosage should not exceed 2 g. The appropriate dose may be diluted in 1 oz of water and given to the patients to drink. Common flavoring syrups may be added to the solution to improve the taste for oral administration. The diluted solution may be administered via a nasogastric tube.

GAZYVA® (obinutuzumab) injection

GAZYVA® (obinutuzumab) injection

Obinutuzumab is a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody of the IgG1 subclass. It recognizes a specific epitope of the CD20 molecule found on B cells. The molecular mass of the antibody is approximately 150 kDa.

GAZYVA (obinutuzumab) injection is produced by mammalian cell (CHO) suspension culture. GAZYVA was engineered for reduced fucose content as compared to a typical IgG1 produced in CHO cells. GAZYVA is a sterile, clear, colorless to slightly brown, preservative-free liquid concentrate for intravenous use. GAZYVA is supplied at a concentration of 25 mg/mL in 1,000 mg single-dose vials. The product is formulated in 20 mM L-histidine/L-histidine hydrochloride, 240 mM trehalose, 0.02% poloxamer 188. The pH is 6.0.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): GAZYVA, in combination with chlorambucil, is indicated for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

Follicular Lymphoma (FL): GAZYVA, in combination with bendamustine followed by GAZYVA monotherapy, is indicated for the treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma who relapsed after, or are refractory to, a rituximab­containing regimen.

GAZYVA, in combination with chemotherapy followed by GAZYVA monotherapy in patients achieving at least a partial remission, is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with previously untreated stage II bulky, III or IV follicular lymphoma.

Mechanism of Action

Obinutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. Upon binding to CD20, obinutuzumab mediates B-cell lysis through (1) engagement of immune effector cells, (2) by directly activating intracellular death signaling pathways (direct cell death), and/or (3) activation of the complement cascade. The immune effector cell mechanisms include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.

As an antibody with reduced fucose content, obinutuzumab induces greater ADCC activity than rituximab in vitro using human cancer cell lines. Obinutuzumab also demonstrated an increased ability to induce direct cell death when compared to rituximab. Obinutuzumab binds to FcγRIII using purified proteins with a higher affinity than rituximab. Obinutuzumab and rituximab bind with similar affinity to overlapping epitopes on CD20.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

GAZYVA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis) to obinutuzumab or to any of the excipients, or serum sickness with prior obinutuzumab use.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation, in some cases resulting in fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, and death, can occur in patients treated with anti-CD20 antibodies such as GAZYVA. HBV reactivation has been reported in patients who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive and also in patients who are HBsAg negative but are hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive. Reactivation has also occurred in patients who appear to have resolved hepatitis B infection (i.e., HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive, and hepatitis B surface antibody [anti-HBs] positive).

Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: John Cunningham (JC) virus infection resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which can be fatal, occurred in patients treated with GAZYVA. Consider the diagnosis of PML in any patient presenting with new onset or changes to preexisting neurologic manifestations. Evaluation of PML includes, but is not limited to, consultation with a neurologist, brain MRI, and lumbar puncture. Discontinue GAZYVA therapy and consider discontinuation or reduction of any concomitant chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy in patients who develop PML.

Infusion-Related Reactions: GAZYVA can cause severe and life-threatening infusion-related reactions (IRRs). Sixty-five percent of patients with CLL experienced a reaction to the first 1,000 mg of GAZYVA infused. Thirty-seven percent of patients with relapsed or refractory NHL and 60% of patients with previously untreated NHL experienced a reaction on Day 1 of GAZYVA infusion. IRRs have occurred within 24 hours of receiving GAZYVA. IRRs can also occur with subsequent infusions. Symptoms may include hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnea, and respiratory symptoms (e.g., bronchospasm, larynx and throat irritation, wheezing, laryngeal edema). The most frequently reported symptoms include nausea, fatigue, chest discomfort, dyspnea, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea, rash, hypertension, hypotension, flushing, headache, pyrexia, and chills.

Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Serum Sickness: Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients treated with GAZYVA. Signs of immediate-onset hypersensitivity included dyspnea, bronchospasm, hypotension, urticaria and tachycardia. Late-onset hypersensitivity diagnosed as serum sickness has also been reported, with symptoms that include chest pain, diffuse arthralgia and fever. Hypersensitivity reactions may be difficult to clinically distinguish from IRRs. However, hypersensitivity very rarely occurs with the first infusion and, when observed, often occurs after previous exposure.

If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected during or after an infusion, stop the infusion and permanently discontinue treatment. GAZYVA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity reactions to GAZYVA, including serum sickness with prior GAZYVA use.

Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), including fatal cases, has been reported in patients receiving GAZYVA. Patients with high tumor burden, high circulating lymphocyte count (> 25 x 109/L) or renal impairment are at greater risk for TLS.

Administer appropriate tumor lysis prophylaxis with anti-hyperuricemics (e.g., allopurinol or rasburicase) and hydration prior to the infusion of GAZYVA for patients at risk for TLS. During the initial days of GAZYVA treatment, monitor the laboratory parameters of patients considered at risk for TLS. For treatment of TLS, correct electrolyte abnormalities, monitor renal function and fluid balance, and administer supportive care, including dialysis as indicated.

Infections: Fatal and serious bacterial, fungal, and new or reactivated viral infections can occur during and following GAZYVA therapy.

Do not administer GAZYVA to patients with an active infection. Patients with a history of recurring or chronic infections may be at increased risk of infection.

Neutropenia: Severe and life-threatening neutropenia, including febrile neutropenia, has been reported during treatment with GAZYVA. Monitor patients with Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia frequently with regular laboratory tests until resolution. Anticipate, evaluate, and treat any symptoms or signs of developing infection. Consider dose delays for Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. Consider administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (GCSF) in patients with Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia.

Neutropenia can also be of late onset (occurring more than 28 days after completion of treatment) and/or prolonged (lasting longer than 28 days). Patients with severe and long lasting (> 1 week) neutropenia are strongly recommended to receive antimicrobial prophylaxis until resolution of neutropenia to Grade 1 or 2. Consider antiviral and antifungal prophylaxis.

Thrombocytopenia: Severe and life-threatening thrombocytopenia has been reported during treatment with GAZYVA in combination with chemotherapy. Fatal hemorrhagic events have been reported in patients with NHL and CLL treated with GAZYVA in combination with chemotherapy, including during Cycle 1.

Monitor all patients frequently for thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic events, especially during the first cycle and if clinically indicated, evaluate laboratory coagulation parameters [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. In patients with Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia, monitor platelet counts more frequently until resolution and consider dose delays of GAZYVA and chemotherapy or dose reductions of chemotherapy. Transfusion of blood products (i.e., platelet transfusion) may be necessary. Consider withholding concomitant medications that may increase bleeding risk (platelet inhibitors, anticoagulants), especially during the first cycle.

Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC): Fatal and severe DIC has been reported in patients receiving GAZYVA for treatment of follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The majority of DIC cases have involved changes in platelets and laboratory coagulation parameters following the first infusion, with spontaneous resolution usually occurring by Day 8. In some cases, DIC was associated with IRRs, TLS, or both. In patients with suspected DIC, evaluate potential causes, and monitor coagulation parameters, platelet counts, and for signs and symptoms of bleeding or thrombosis. Manage according to standard guidelines for DIC. Supportive care, including transfusion of blood products and other medical management, may be necessary.

Immunization: The safety and efficacy of immunization with live or attenuated viral vaccines during or following GAZYVA therapy have not been studied. Immunization with live virus vaccines is not recommended during treatment and until B-cell recovery.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, GAZYVA can cause B-cell depletion in infants exposed to obinutuzumab in-utero. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception while receiving GAZYVA and for 6 months after the last dose.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy: Based on findings from animal studies and its mechanism of action, GAZYVA can cause fetal B-cell depletion. There are no data with GAZYVA use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. Monoclonal antibodies are transferred across the placenta. In animal reproduction studies, weekly intravenous administration of obinutuzumab to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys from day 20 of pregnancy until parturition which includes the period of organogenesis at doses with exposures up to 2.4 times the exposure at the clinical dose of 1,000 mg monthly produced opportunistic infections and immune complex mediated hypersensitivity reactions. No embryo-toxic or teratogenic effects were observed in the monkeys. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to the fetus.

Lactation: There is no information regarding the presence of GAZYVA in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. However, low levels of obinutuzumab were present in the milk of lactating cynomolgus monkeys. Human IgG is known to be present in human milk. Because of the potential of serious adverse reactions in the breastfed child, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with GAZYVA and for 6 months after the last dose.

Females and Males of Reproductive Potential: GAZYVA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.

Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with GAZYVA and for 6 months after the last dose.

Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of GAZYVA in pediatric patients have not been established.

OVERDOSAGE

There has been no experience with overdose in human clinical trials. For patients who experience overdose, treatment should consist of immediate interruption or reduction of GAZYVA and supportive therapy.

Cleocin® Vaginal Ovules (clindamycin phosphate vaginal suppositories)

Cleocin® Vaginal Ovules (clindamycin phosphate vaginal suppositories)

Clindamycin phosphate is a water-soluble ester of the semisynthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent antibiotic lincomycin. The chemical name for clindamycin phosphate is methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl-trans-4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L-threo-α-D-galacto-octopyranoside 2-(dihydrogen phosphate). The monohydrate form has a molecular weight of 522.98, and the molecular formula is C18H34ClN2O8PS•H2O.

CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are semisolid, white to off-white suppositories for intravaginal administration. Each 2.5 g suppository contains clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 100 mg clindamycin in a base consisting of a mixture of glycerides of saturated fatty acids.

Mechanism of Action

Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. Clindamycin is predominantly bacteriostatic. Although clindamycin phosphate is inactive in vitro, rapid in vivo hydrolysis converts it to active clindamycin.

Resistance

Resistance to clindamycin is most often caused by modification of the target site on the ribosome, usually by chemical modification of RNA bases or by point mutations in RNA or occasionally in proteins. Cross resistance has been demonstrated between lincosamides,

macrolides and streptogramins B in some organisms. Cross resistance has been demonstrated between clindamycin and lincomycin.

Antibacterial Activity

Culture and sensitivity testing of bacteria are not routinely performed to establish the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE); standard methodology for the susceptibility testing of the potential bacterial pathogens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus spp., or Mycoplasma hominis, has not been defined.

The following in vitro data are available but their clinical significance is unknown. Clindamycin is active in vitro against most isolates of the following organisms reported to be associated with bacterial vaginosis:

  • Bacteroides spp.
  • Gardnerella vaginalis
  • Mobiluncus spp.
  • Mycoplasma hominis
  • Peptostreptococcus spp.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are indicated for 3-day treatment of bacterial vaginosis in nonpregnant women. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in pregnant women.

NOTE: For purposes of this indication, a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is usually defined by the presence of a homogeneous vaginal discharge that (a) has a pH of greater than 4.5, (b) emits a “fishy” amine odor when mixed with a 10% KOH solution, and (c) contains clue cells on microscopic examination. Gram’s stain results consistent with a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis include (a) markedly reduced or absent Lactobacillus morphology, (b) predominance of Gardnerella morphotype, and (c) absent or few white blood cells.

Other pathogens commonly associated with vulvovaginitis, e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, and herpes simplex virus, should be ruled out.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to clindamycin, lincomycin, or any of the components of this vaginal suppository. CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are also contraindicated in individuals with a history of regional enteritis, ulcerative colitis, or a history of “antibiotic-associated” colitis.

WARNINGS

Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis, which may end fatally. Diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported with the use of orally and parenterally administered clindamycin, as well as with topical (dermal and vaginal) formulations of clindamycin. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules, because approximately 30% of the clindamycin dose is systemically absorbed from the vagina.

Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridioides difficile is a primary cause of “antibiotic-associated” colitis.

Drug Interactions

Systemic clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.

Pregnancy: Teratogenic effects

In clinical trials with pregnant women, the systemic administration of clindamycin during the second and third trimesters, has not been associated with an increased frequency of congenital abnormalities.

Clindamycin vaginal ovules should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy only if clearly needed and the benefits outweigh the risks. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy.

Nursing Mothers

Limited published data based on breast milk sampling reports that clindamycin appears in human breast milk in the range of less than 0.5 to 3.8 mcg/mL at dosages of 150 mg orally to 600 mg intravenously. It is not known if clindamycin is excreted in human breast milk following the use of vaginally administered clindamycin phosphate.

Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breast-fed infant’s gastrointestinal flora. If clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the breast-fed infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis.

The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in post-menarchal females have been established on the extrapolation of clinical trial data from adult women. When a post-menarchal adolescent presents to a health professional with bacterial vaginosis symptoms, a careful evaluation for sexually transmitted diseases and other risk factors for bacterial vaginosis should be considered. The safety and efficacy of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in pre-menarchal females have not been established.

Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.

OVERDOSAGE

Vaginally applied clindamycin phosphate contained in CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules could be absorbed in sufficient amounts to produce systemic effects.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The recommended dose is one CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovule (containing clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 100 mg clindamycin per 2.5 g suppository) intravaginally per day, preferably at bedtime, for 3 consecutive days.

TALTZ (ixekizumab) injection

TALTZ (ixekizumab) injection

Ixekizumab is a humanized immunoglobulin G subclass 4 (IgG4) monoclonal antibody (mAb) with neutralizing activity against IL-17A. Ixekizumab is produced by recombinant DNA technology in a recombinant mammalian cell line and purified using standard technology for bioprocessing. Ixekizumab is comprised of two identical light chain polypeptides of 219 amino acids each and two identical heavy chain polypeptides of 445 amino acids each, and has a molecular weight of 146,158 Daltons for the protein backbone of the molecule.

TALTZ injection is a sterile, preservative free, clear and colorless to slightly yellow solution, for subcutaneous use available as 80 mg of ixekizumab in a 1 mL single-dose prefilled autoinjector or a single-dose prefilled syringe. The prefilled autoinjector and prefilled syringe each contain a 1 mL glass syringe with a fixed 27 gauge ½ inch needle. The TALTZ 80 mg prefilled autoinjector and prefilled syringe are manufactured to deliver 80 mg of ixekizumab.

Each mL is composed of ixekizumab (80 mg); Polysorbate 80, USP (0.3 mg); Sucrose, USP (80 mg); and Water for Injection, USP. Sodium Hydroxide, USP-NF, may have been added to adjust pH. The TALTZ solution has a pH of 5.2 – 6.2.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Plaque Psoriasis: TALTZ® is indicated for the treatment of patients 6 years of age and older with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis who are candidates for systemic therapy or phototherapy.

Psoriatic Arthritis: TALTZ is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with active psoriatic arthritis.

Ankylosing Spondylitis: TALTZ is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with active ankylosing spondylitis.

Non-radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis: TALTZ is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with active non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nraxSpA) with objective signs of inflammation.

Mechanism of Action

Ixekizumab is a humanized IgG4 monoclonal antibody that selectively binds with the interleukin 17A (IL-17A) cytokine and inhibits its interaction with the IL-17 receptor. IL-17A is a naturally occurring cytokine that is involved in normal inflammatory and immune responses. Ixekizumab inhibits the release of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Testing and Procedures Prior to Treatment Initiation

  • Evaluate patients for tuberculosis (TB) infection. TALTZ initiation is not recommended in patients with active TB infection. Initiate treatment of latent TB prior to initiation of TALTZ.
  • Complete all age-appropriate vaccinations as recommended by current immunization guidelines prior to initiating treatment with TALTZ.

Adult Plaque Psoriasis: TALTZ is administered by subcutaneous injection. The recommended dosage is 160 mg (two 80 mg injections) at Week 0, followed by 80 mg at Weeks 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12, then 80 mg every 4 weeks.

Pediatric Plaque Psoriasis: TALTZ is administered by subcutaneous injection every 4 weeks (Q4W). The recommended dosage in pediatric patients from 6 to less than 18 years of age with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis is based on the following weight categories.

  • Greater than 50 kg: Starting Dose (Week 0), 160 mg (two 80 mg injections). Dose every 4 weeks (Q4W) Thereafter, 80 mg.
  • 25 to 50 kg:  Starting Dose (Week 0), 80 mg. Dose every 4 weeks (Q4W) Thereafter, 40 mg.
  • Less than 25 kg: Starting Dose (Week 0), 40 mg.  Dose every 4 weeks (Q4W) Thereafter,  20 mg.

Psoriatic Arthritis: The recommended dosage is 160 mg by subcutaneous injection (two 80 mg injections) at Week 0, followed by 80 mg every 4 weeks.

For psoriatic arthritis patients with coexistent moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis, use the dosing regimen for adult plaque psoriasis.

TALTZ may be administered alone or in combination with a conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drug (cDMARD) (e.g., methotrexate).

Ankylosing Spondylitis: The recommended dosage is 160 mg by subcutaneous injection (two 80 mg injections) at Week 0, followed by 80 mg every 4 weeks.

Non-radiographic Axial Spondyloarthritis: The recommended dosage is 80 mg by subcutaneous injection every 4 weeks.

Important Administration Instructions

TALTZ is intended for use under the guidance and supervision of a physician. Adult patients may self-inject or caregivers may give injections of TALTZ 80 mg after training in subcutaneous injection technique using the autoinjector or prefilled syringe. Caregivers may give injections of TALTZ 80 mg to pediatric patients weighing more than 50 kg using the autoinjector or prefilled syringe after training and demonstration of proper subcutaneous injection technique.

The TALTZ “Instructions for Use” contains more detailed instructions on the preparation and administration of TALTZ.

Before injection, remove TALTZ autoinjector or TALTZ prefilled syringe from the refrigerator and allow TALTZ to reach room temperature (30 minutes) without removing the needle cap. Inspect TALTZ visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration. TALTZ is a clear and colorless to slightly yellow solution. Do not use if the liquid contains visible particles, is discolored or cloudy (other than clear and colorless to slightly yellow).

Administer each injection at a different anatomic location (such as upper arms, thighs or any quadrant of abdomen) than the previous injection, and not into areas where the skin is tender, bruised, erythematous, indurated or affected by psoriasis. Administration of TALTZ in the upper, outer arm may be performed by a caregiver or healthcare provider.

TALTZ does not contain preservatives, therefore discard any unused product.

If a dose is missed, administer the dose as soon as possible. Thereafter, resume dosing at the regular scheduled time.

Pediatric Patients Weighing 50 kg or Less

TALTZ doses of 20 mg or 40 mg must be prepared and administered by a qualified healthcare professional. Use only the commercial TALTZ 80 mg/1 mL prefilled syringe when preparing the prescribed 20 mg and 40 mg pediatric dose [see Instructions for Use].

Gather the following necessary supplies for preparation:

  • 0.5 mL or 1 mL disposable syringe
  • Sterile needle for withdrawal
  • 27-gauge sterile needle for administration
  • Sterile, clear glass vial.

Expel the entire contents of the prefilled syringe into the sterile vial. DO NOT shake or swirl the vial. No other medications should be added to solutions containing TALTZ.

Using the 0.5 mL or 1 mL disposable syringe and sterile needle, withdraw the prescribed dose from the vial (0.25 mL for 20 mg; 0.5 mL for 40 mg).

Remove the needle from the syringe and replace it with a 27-gauge needle prior to administering TALTZ to the patient.

Storage: If necessary, the prepared TALTZ may be stored at room temperature for up to 4 hours from first puncturing the sterile vial.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

TALTZ is contraindicated in patients with a previous serious hypersensitivity reaction, such as anaphylaxis, to ixekizumab or to any of the excipients.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Infections: TALTZ may increase the risk of infection. In clinical trials in adult patients with plaque psoriasis, the TALTZ group had a higher rate of infections than the placebo group (27% vs. 23%). Upper respiratory tract infections, oral candidiasis, conjunctivitis and tinea infections occurred more frequently in the TALTZ group than in the placebo group. A similar increase in risk of infection was seen in placebo-controlled trials in patients with pediatric psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, and non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis.

Instruct patients treated with TALTZ to seek medical advice if signs or symptoms of clinically important chronic or acute infection occur. If a patient develops a serious infection or is not responding to standard therapy, monitor the patient closely and discontinue TALTZ until the infection resolves.

Pre-treatment Evaluation for Tuberculosis: Evaluate patients for tuberculosis (TB) infection prior to initiating treatment with TALTZ. Do not administer to patients with active TB infection. Initiate treatment of latent TB prior to administering TALTZ. Consider anti-TB therapy prior to initiating TALTZ in patients with a past history of latent or active TB in whom an adequate course of treatment cannot be confirmed. Patients receiving TALTZ should be monitored closely for signs and symptoms of active TB during and after treatment.

Hypersensitivity: Serious hypersensitivity reactions, including angioedema and urticaria (each ≤0.1%), occurred in the TALTZ group in clinical trials. Anaphylaxis, including cases leading to hospitalization, has been reported in post marketing use with TALTZ. If a serious hypersensitivity reaction occurs, discontinue TALTZ immediately and initiate appropriate therapy.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease: Patients treated with TALTZ may be at increased risk of inflammatory bowel disease. In clinical trials, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, including exacerbations, occurred at a greater frequency in the TALTZ group than the placebo control group. During TALTZ treatment, monitor for onset or exacerbation of inflammatory bowel disease and if IBD occurs, discontinue TALTZ and initiate appropriate medical management.

Immunizations: Prior to initiating therapy with TALTZ, consider completion of all age-appropriate immunizations according to current immunization guidelines. Avoid use of live vaccines in patients treated with TALTZ. No data are available on the response to live vaccines.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy: Available data from the published literature and the pharmacovigilance database with TALTZ use in pregnant women are insufficient to evaluate for a drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or other adverse maternal or fetal outcomes.

Human IgG is known to cross the placental barrier; therefore, TALTZ may be transmitted from the mother to the developing fetus. An embryofetal development study conducted in pregnant monkeys during organogenesis at doses up to 19 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) revealed no evidence of harm to the developing fetus.

When dosing was continued until parturition, neonatal deaths were observed at 1.9 times the MRHD. The clinical significance of these nonclinical findings is unknown.

Lactation: There are no available data on the presence of ixekizumab in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. Ixekizumab was detected in the milk of lactating cynomolgus monkeys. When a drug is present in animal milk, it is likely that the drug will be present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for TALTZ and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from TALTZ or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of TALTZ have been established in pediatric subjects aged 6 years to less than 18 years with moderate-to-severe plaque psoriasis. The safety and effectiveness of TALTZ in other pediatric indications and for pediatric subjects less than 6 years of age have not been established.

Geriatric Use: Of the 4204 adult psoriasis subjects exposed to TALTZ, a total of 301 were 65 years or older, and 36 subjects were 75 years or older. Although no differences in safety or efficacy were observed between older and younger subjects, the number of subjects aged 65 and over is not sufficient to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects

STENDRA® (avanafil) tablets

STENDRA® (avanafil) tablets

STENDRA (avanafil) is a selective inhibitor of cGMP-specific PDE5.

Avanafil is designated chemically as (S)-4-[(3-Chloro-4-methoxybenzyl)amino]-2-[2-(hydroxymethyl)-1-pyrrolidinyl]-N­(2-pyrimidinylmethyl)-5-pyrimidinecarboxamide.

Avanafil occurs as white crystalline powder, molecular formula C23H26ClN7O3 and molecular weight of 483.95 and is slightly soluble in ethanol, practically insoluble in water, soluble in 0.1 mol/L hydrochloric acid. STENDRA, for oral administration, is supplied as oval, pale yellow tablets containing 50 mg, 100 mg, or 200 mg avanafil debossed with dosage strengths. In addition to the active ingredient, avanafil, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: mannitol, fumaric acid, hydroxypropylcellulose, low substituted hydroxypropylcellulose, calcium carbonate, magnesium stearate, and ferric oxide yellow.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

STENDRA is a phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) inhibitor indicated for the treatment of erectile dysfunction in adult males.

Mechanism of Action

The physiologic mechanism of erection of the penis involves release of nitric oxide (NO) in the corpus cavernosum during sexual stimulation. NO then activates the enzyme guanylate cyclase, which results in increased levels of cGMP, producing smooth muscle relaxation in the corpus cavernosum and allowing inflow of blood. Avanafil has no direct relaxant effect on isolated human corpus cavernosum, but enhances the effect of NO by inhibiting PDE5, which is responsible for degradation of cGMP in the corpus cavernosum. Because sexual stimulation is required to initiate the local release of nitric oxide, the inhibition of PDE5 has no effect in the absence of sexual stimulation.

Studies in vitro have shown that avanafil is selective for PDE5. Its effect is more potent on PDE5 than on other known phosphodiesterases (greater than 100-fold for PDE6; greater than 1,000-fold for PDE4, PDE8 and PDE10; greater than 5,000-fold for PDE2 and PDE7; greater than 10,000-fold for PDE1, PDE3, PDE9, and PDE11). Avanafil is greater than 100-fold more potent for PDE5 than PDE6, which is found in the retina and is responsible for phototransduction. In addition to human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle, PDE5 is also found in other tissues including platelets, vascular and visceral smooth muscle, and skeletal muscle, brain, heart, liver, kidney, lung, pancreas, prostate, bladder, testis, and seminal vesicle. The inhibition of PDE5 in these tissues by avanafil may be the basis for the enhanced platelet anti-aggregatory activity of NO observed in vitro and peripheral vasodilatation in vivo.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Erectile Dysfunction: The recommended starting dose is 100 mg. STENDRA should be taken orally as needed as early as approximately 15 minutes before sexual activity.

Based on individual efficacy and tolerability, the dose may be increased to 200 mg taken as early as approximately 15 minutes before sexual activity, or decreased to 50 mg taken approximately 30 minutes before sexual activity. The lowest dose that provides benefit should be used.

The maximum recommended dosing frequency is once per day. Sexual stimulation is required for a response to treatment.

Use with Food: STENDRA may be taken with or without food.

Concomitant Medications

Nitrates: Concomitant use of nitrates in any form is contraindicated.

Alpha-Blockers: If STENDRA is co-administered with an alpha-blocker, patients should be stable on alpha-blocker therapy prior to initiating treatment with STENDRA, and STENDRA should be initiated at the 50 mg dose.

CYP3A4 Inhibitors

  • For patients taking concomitant strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (including ketoconazole, ritonavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir and telithromycin), do not use STENDRA.
  • For patients taking concomitant moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (including erythromycin, amprenavir, aprepitant, diltiazem, fluconazole, fosamprenavir, and verapamil), the maximum recommended dose of STENDRA is 50 mg, not to exceed once every 24 hours.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Nitrates: Administration of STENDRA with any form of organic nitrates, either regularly and/or intermittently, is contraindicated. Consistent with its known effects on the nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway, STENDRA has been shown to potentiate the hypotensive effects of nitrates.

In a patient who has taken STENDRA, where nitrate administration is deemed medically necessary in a life-threatening situation, at least 12 hours should elapse after the last dose of STENDRA before nitrate administration is considered. In such circumstances, nitrates should only be administered under close medical supervision with appropriate hemodynamic monitoring.

Hypersensitivity Reactions: STENDRA is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to any component of the tablet. Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported, including pruritis and eyelid swelling.

Concomitant Guanylate Cyclase (GC) Stimulators: Do not use STENDRA in patients who are using a GC stimulator, such as riociguat or vericiguat. PDE5 inhibitors, including STENDRA may potentiate the hypotensive effects of GC stimulators.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Evaluation of erectile dysfunction (ED) should include an appropriate medical assessment to identify potential underlying causes, as well as treatment options.

Before prescribing STENDRA, it is important to note the following:

Cardiovascular Risk: There is a potential for cardiac risk during sexual activity in patients with pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Therefore, treatments for ED, including STENDRA, should not be used in men for whom sexual activity is inadvisable because of their underlying cardiovascular status.

Patients with left ventricular outflow obstruction (e.g., aortic stenosis, idiopathic hypertrophic subaortic stenosis) and those with severely impaired autonomic control of blood pressure can be particularly sensitive to the actions of vasodilators, including STENDRA.

Concomitant Use of CYP3A4 Inhibitors: STENDRA metabolism is principally mediated by the CYP450 isoform 3A4 (CYP3A4). Inhibitors of CYP3A4 may reduce STENDRA clearance and increase plasma concentrations of avanafil.

For patients taking concomitant strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (including ketoconazole, ritonavir, atazanavir, clarithromycin, indinavir, itraconazole, nefazodone, nelfinavir, saquinavir and telithromycin), do not use STENDRA.

For patients taking concomitant moderate CYP3A4 inhibitors (including erythromycin, amprenavir, aprepitant, diltiazem, fluconazole, fosamprenavir, and verapamil), the maximum recommended dose of STENDRA is 50 mg, not to exceed once every 24 hours.

Prolonged Erection: Prolonged erection greater than 4 hours and priapism (painful erections greater than 6 hours in duration) have been reported with other PDE5 inhibitors. In the event of an erection that persists longer than 4 hours, the patient should seek immediate medical assistance. If not treated immediately, penile tissue damage and permanent loss of potency could result.

STENDRA should be used with caution in patients with anatomical deformation of the penis (such as angulation, cavernosal fibrosis, or Peyronie’s disease), or in patients who have conditions which may predispose them to priapism (such as sickle cell anemia, multiple myeloma, or leukemia).

Effects on Eye: Physicians should advise patients to stop use of all PDE5 inhibitors, including STENDRA and seek medical attention in the event of a sudden loss of vision in one or both eyes. Such an event may be a sign of non-arteritic anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (NAION), a rare condition and a cause of decreased vision including permanent loss of vision that has been reported rarely postmarketing in temporal association with the use of all PDE5 inhibitors. Based on published literature, the annual incidence of NAION is 2.5-11.8 cases per 100,000 in males aged ≥ 50.

Sudden Hearing Loss: Use of PDE5 inhibitors has been associated with sudden decrease or loss of hearing, which may be accompanied by tinnitus or dizziness. It is not possible to determine whether these events are related directly to the use of PDE5 inhibitors or to other factors. Patients experiencing these symptoms should be advised to stop taking STENDRA and seek prompt medical attention.

Alpha-Blockers and Other Antihypertensives: Physicians should discuss with patients the potential for STENDRA to augment the blood pressure-lowering effect of alpha-blockers and other antihypertensive medications.

Caution is advised when PDE5 inhibitors are co-administered with alpha-blockers. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors, including STENDRA, and alpha-adrenergic blocking agents are both vasodilators with blood pressure-lowering effects. When vasodilators are used in combination, an additive effect on blood pressure may be anticipated. In some patients, concomitant use of these two drug classes can lower blood pressure significantly leading to symptomatic hypotension (e.g., dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting).

Alcohol: Patients should be made aware that both alcohol and PDE5 inhibitors including STENDRA act as vasodilators. When vasodilators are taken in combination, blood-pressure-lowering effects of each individual compound may be increased. Therefore, physicians should inform patients that substantial consumption of alcohol (e.g., greater than 3 units) in combination with STENDRA may increase the potential for orthostatic signs and symptoms, including increase in heart rate, decrease in standing blood pressure, dizziness, and headache.

Combination with Other PDE5 Inhibitors or Erectile Dysfunction Therapies: The safety and efficacy of combinations of STENDRA with other treatments for ED has not been studied. Therefore, the use of such combinations is not recommended.

Effects on Bleeding: The safety of STENDRA is unknown in patients with bleeding disorders and patients with active peptic ulceration. In vitro studies with human platelets indicate that STENDRA potentiates the anti-aggregatory effect of sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide [NO] donor).

Counseling Patients about Sexually Transmitted Diseases: The use of STENDRA offers no protection against sexually transmitted diseases. Counseling patients about the protective measures necessary to guard against sexually transmitted diseases, including Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), should be considered.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

Nitrates: Administration of STENDRA to patients who are using any form of organic nitrate, is contraindicated. In a clinical pharmacology trial, STENDRA was shown to potentiate the hypotensive effect of nitrates. In a patient who has taken STENDRA, where nitrate administration is deemed medically necessary in a life-threatening situation, at least 12 hours should elapse after the last dose of STENDRA before nitrate administration is considered. In such circumstances, nitrates should only be administered under close medical supervision with appropriate hemodynamic monitoring.

Alpha-Blockers: Caution is advised when PDE5 inhibitors are co-administered with alpha-blockers. PDE5 inhibitors, including STENDRA, and alpha-adrenergic blocking agents are both vasodilators with blood pressure-lowering effects. When vasodilators are used in combination, an additive effect on blood pressure may be anticipated. In some patients, concomitant use of these two drug classes can lower blood pressure significantly leading to symptomatic hypotension (e.g., dizziness, lightheadedness, fainting).

Antihypertensives: PDE5 inhibitors, including STENDRA, are mild systemic vasodilators. A clinical pharmacology trial was conducted to assess the effect of STENDRA on the potentiation of the blood pressure-lowering effects of selected antihypertensive medications (amlodipine and enalapril). Additional reductions in blood pressure of 3 to 5 mmHg occurred following co-administration of a single 200 mg dose of STENDRA with these agents compared with placebo.

Alcohol: Both alcohol and PDE5 inhibitors, including STENDRA, act as vasodilators. When vasodilators are taken in combination, blood pressure-lowering effects of each individual compound may be increased. Substantial consumption of alcohol (e.g., greater than 3 units) in combination with STENDRA can increase the potential for orthostatic signs and symptoms, including increase in heart rate, decrease in standing blood pressure, dizziness, and headache.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pediatric Use: STENDRA is not indicated for use in pediatric patients. Safety and efficacy in patients below the age of 18 years has not been established.

Geriatric Use: Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of avanafil, approximately 23% were 65 and over. No overall differences in efficacy and safety were observed between subjects over 65 years of age compared to younger subjects; therefore, no dose adjustment is warranted based on age alone. However, a greater sensitivity to medication in some older individuals should be considered.

Renal Impairment: In a clinical pharmacology trial using single 200 mg doses of STENDRA, avanafil exposure (AUC or Cmax) in normal subjects was comparable to patients with mild (creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 60 to less than 90 mL/min) or moderate (creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 30 to less than 60 mL/min) renal impairment. No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild to moderate renal impairment (creatinine clearance greater than or equal to 30 to less than 90 mL/min). The pharmacokinetics of avanafil in patients with severe renal disease or on renal dialysis has not been studied; do not use STENDRA in such patients.

Hepatic Impairment: In a clinical pharmacology trial, avanafil AUC and Cmax in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A) was comparable to that in healthy subjects when a dose of 200 mg was administered. Avanafil Cmax was approximately 51% lower and AUC was 11% higher in patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child Pugh Class B) compared to subjects with normal hepatic function. No dose adjustment is necessary for patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child Pugh Class A or B). The pharmacokinetics of avanafil in patients with severe hepatic disease has not been studied; do not use STENDRA in such patients.

OVERDOSAGE

Single doses up to 800 mg have been given to healthy subjects, and multiple doses up to 300 mg have been given to patients. In cases of overdose, standard supportive measures should be adopted as required. Renal dialysis is not expected to accelerate clearance because avanafil is highly bound to plasma proteins and is not significantly eliminated in the urine.

LACILLIN® (Ampicillin preparations)

LACILLIN® (Ampicillin preparations)

Lacillin is indicated in the treatment of gastrointestinal, respiratory, systemic and urogenital infections caused by or associated with pathogens sensitive to ampicillin therapy. These infections include biliary-tract infections, bronchitis, endocarditis, epiglottitis, gonorrhea, listeriosis, meningitis, otitis media, peritonitis, pneumonia, typhoid fever, paratyphoid fever, and gastroenteritis including Escherichia coli enteritis, Salmonella enteritis and shigellosis.

Dosage and administration

Lacillin preparations are administered by the oral route on an empty stomach preferably 30minutes before meals or 2 hours after meals.

Lacillin granules are reconstituted to make 60ml and 100ml oral suspension by shaking with specified volumes of clean, boiled and cooled water respectively. Shake the bottle well before taking each dose.

The dosage of ampicillin will depend on the severity of the disease, the age of the patient and renal functions. The dose should be reduced in severe renal failure. The usual oral dose of ampicillin is 250mg to 1g every 6 hours.

Precautions and contraindications

  1. Lacillin is contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to ampicillin or other penicillins
  2. Ampicillin should preferably not be given to patients with infectious mononucleosis since they are especially susceptible to ampicillin-induced skin rashes. Patients with lymphatic leukemia or HIV infection may also be at increased risk of developing skin rashes
  3. Lacillin should be given with care in patients with impaired renal function because of the risk of neurotoxicity. Prolonged use of the preparations should be avoided since penicillin therapy changes the normal bacterial flora and can lead to super-infection with penicillin resistant organisms including pseudomonas or candida spp.
  4. Renal and haematological status should be monitored during prolonged and high-dose therapy. Care is also necessary when treating some patients because of the Jarisch-Herxheimer reaction with syphilis and other spirochaete infections.

Drug interactions

Ampicillin may decrease the efficacy of oestrogen-containing oral contraceptives.

 There may be antagonism between ampicillin, a bacteriostatic agent such as chloramphenicol or tetracyclines.

Adverse effects

Lacillin may cause gstro-intestinal disturbances including diarrhea, nausea and vomiting. Pseudomembranous colitis has also been reported.

Hypersensitivity reactions, especially skin rashes are frequently observed and are generally either urticarial or maculopapular.

Pharmacology

Lacillin contains ampicillin semi-synthetic penicillin derived from 3-Amino Penicillin Acid. It is a beta-lactam antibiotic with a similar mode of action to that of benzylpenicillin but with a wider spectrum of antibactericidal action on growing and dividing bacteria. It acts by inhibiting bacterial cell-wall synthesis. It inhibits the final cross-linking stage of peptidoglycan production by binding to and inactivating transpeptidases and penicillin-binding proteins on the inner surface of the bacterial cell membrane, in addition to causing bacterial lysis by inactivation of endogenous inhibitors of bacterial autolysis.

Antimicrobial action and resistance

Lacillin is active on both Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogens, and has a broader spectrum of activity than benzylpenicillin, especially against Gram-negative bacilli. Ampicillin is active on Streptococcus pneumonia, Listeria monocytogenes, Moraxella Catarrhalis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Neisseria meningitis, Haemophilia influenza, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Salmonella and Shigella spp. Ampicillin has similar activity as benzylpenicillin against many anaerobes and Actinomyces spp. It is inactive against Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

DIALIN (Loperamide HCL 2mg)

DIALIN (Loperamide HCL 2mg)

Dialin capsules are colored grey/green and contain 2mg Loperamide Hydrochloride.

Loperamide binds to the opiate receptor in the gut wall, thereby reducing propulsive peristalsis and increasing intestinal transit time. Loperamide also increases the tone of the anal sphincter.

Indications

Dialin is used for the symptomatic treatment of acute diarrhea in adults and children aged 4 years and over. Dialin can also be used for symptomatic treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic diarrhea for periods of up to 5 days in adults and children over 12 years.

Dosage and administration

Acute Diarrhoea

Adults and children over 12 years: two capsules initially followed by one capsule after every loose stool/motion. The usual dose is 3-4 capsules a day. The maximum daily dosage should not exceed 8 capsules.

Children 4-12 years: On doctor’s advice

Children under 4 years: Not recommended

Further investigations into the cause of diarrhea should be considered if there is no improvement within two days of starting treatment with Dialin.

Contraindications

Dialin should not be used when inhibition of peristalsis is to be  avoided, in particular when  ileus or constipation are present or when abdominal distention develops particularly in severely dehydrated children or in patients with acute ulcerative colitis or pseudomembranous colitis associated with broad spectrum antibiotics. Dialin should not be used alone in acute dysentery, which is characterized by blood in stools and elevated body temperature.

Precautions

In patients with diarrhea fluid and electrolyte depletion may occur. Use of Dialin does not preclude the administration of appropriate fluid and electrolyte replacement therapy. Since persistent diarrhea can be an indicator of potentially more serious conditions, Dialin should not be used for prolonged periods until the underlying cause of the diarrhea has been investigated. Dialin must be used with caution in patients with defective hepatic function.

It is not advisable to administer Dialin to pregnant or nursing women/

If symptoms persist a doctor should be consulted.

Side effects

The most common side effects observed are abdominal cramps, nausea, vomiting, tiredness, dizziness, dry mouth and skin reactions.

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