Diseases and conditions

A disease is an abnormal condition affecting a living organism. Diseases are generally understood to be medical conditions that involve a pathological process associated with a specific set of symptoms. Localized diseases affect specific parts of the body; disseminated diseases spread to other parts of the body; and systemic diseases affect the entire body.

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC)

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC)

Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a chronic disease of the liver characterized by autoimmune destruction of small intrahepatic bile ducts and cholestasis. The designation “primary biliary cholangitis” has replaced “primary biliary cirrhosis” because many patients do not have cirrhosis. The disease is insidious in onset, occurs usually in women aged 40–60 …

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Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis

Psoriatic arthritis Psoriatic arthritis is a type of arthritis linked with psoriasis, a chronic skin and nail disease. Psoriasis causes red, scaly rashes and thick, pitted fingernails. Psoriatic arthritis is similar to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in symptoms and joint swelling (inflammation). But it tends to affect fewer joints than RA. And it does not make the …

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Fibrocystic condition

Fibrocystic condition

Fibrocystic condition Fibrocystic condition is the most frequent lesion of the breast. Although commonly referred to as “fibrocystic disease,” it does not, in fact, represent a pathologic or ana­tomic disorder. It is common in women 30–50 years of age but rare in postmenopausal women who are not taking hormonal replacement. Estrogen is considered a causative …

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Gonococcal arthritis

Gonococcal arthritis

Gonococcal arthritis Gonococcal arthritis is inflammation of a joint due to a gonorrhea infection. Gonococcal arthritis starts when Neisseria gonorrhoeae are passed through vaginal, anal, or oral sex. In contrast to nongonococcal bacterial arthritis, gonococ­cal arthritis usually occurs in otherwise healthy individu­als. Host factors, however, influence the expression of the disease: gonococcal arthritis is two to three …

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Raynaud phenomenon (RP)

Raynaud phenomenon (RP)

Raynaud phenomenon (RP) Raynaud phenomenon (RP) is a syndrome of paroxysmal digital ischemia, most commonly caused by an exaggerated response of digital arterioles to cold or emotional stress. The initial phase of RP, mediated by excessive vasocon­striction, consists of well-demarcated digital pallor or cya­nosis; the subsequent (recovery) phase of RP, caused by vasodilation, leads to …

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Scleroderma

Scleroderma (Systemic Sclerosis)

Scleroderma Scleroderma (systemic sclerosis) is a rare chronic disorder characterized by diffuse fibrosis of the skin and internal organs. Symptoms usually appear in the third to fifth decades, and women are affected two to three times as frequently as men. Two forms of scleroderma are generally recognized: lim­ited (80% of patients) and diffuse (20%). In …

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Hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids causes, diagnosis and treatment

Hemorrhoids Hemorrhoids are swollen, enlarged veins that form inside and outside the anus and rectum. Internal hemorrhoids are subepithelial vascular cushions consisting of connective tissue, smooth muscle fibers, and arteriovenous communications between terminal branches of the superior rectal artery and rectal veins. They are a normal anatomic entity, occurring in all adults, that con­tribute to …

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