CIPRO XR (ciprofloxacin) extended-release tablets
CIPRO XR (ciprofloxacin*) extended-release tablets contain ciprofloxacin, a synthetic antimicrobial agent for oral administration. CIPRO XR tablets are coated, bilayer tablets consisting of an immediate-release layer and an erosionmatrix type controlled-release layer.
The tablets contain a combination of two types of ciprofloxacin drug substance, ciprofloxacin hydrochloride and ciprofloxacin betaine (base). Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride is 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7- (1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid hydrochloride. It is provided as a mixture of the monohydrate and the sesquihydrate.
The empirical formula of the monohydrate is C17H18FN3O3 • HCl • H2O and its molecular weight is 385.8. The empirical formula of the sesquihydrate is C17H18FN3O3 • HCl • 1.5 H2O and its molecular weight is 394.8. The drug substance is a faintly yellowish to light yellow crystalline substance.
Ciprofloxacin betaine is 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1, 4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. As a hydrate, its empirical formula is C17H18FN3O3 • 3.5 H2O and its molecular weight is 394.3.
* as ciprofloxacin† and ciprofloxacin hydrochloride
Indications and usage
Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infections (Acute Cystitis): CIPRO XR is indicated for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Enterococcus faecalis, or Staphylococcus saprophyticus.
Complicated Urinary Tract Infections, and Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis: CIPRO XR is indicated for the treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, Proteus mirabilis, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa and acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis (AUP) caused by Escherichia coli.
Limitations of Use
- The safety and efficacy of CIPRO XR in treating infections other than urinary tract infections has not been demonstrated.
- CIPRO XR is not indicated for pediatric patients.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of CIPRO XR and other antibacterial drugs, CIPRO XR should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Mechanism of Action
The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV (both Type II topoisomerases), which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.
Mechanism of Resistance
The mechanism of action of fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, is different from that of other antimicrobial agents such as beta-lactams, macrolides, tetracyclines, or aminoglycosides; therefore, microorganisms resistant to these classes of drugs may be susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to fluoroquinolones occurs primarily by either mutations in the DNA gyrases, decreased outer membrane permeability, or drug efflux. In vitro resistance to ciprofloxacin develops slowly by multiple step mutations. Resistance to ciprofloxacin due to spontaneous mutations occurs at a general frequency of between < 10-9 to 1×10-6 .
Dosage and administration
|Uncomplicated Urinary Tract Infection (Acute Cystitis)||500 mg||every 24 hours||3 Days|
|Complicated Urinary Tract Infection and Acute Uncomplicated Pyelonephritis||1000 mg||every 24 hours||7–14 Days|
Patients whose therapy is started with CIPRO IV for UTIs may be switched to CIPRO XR when clinically indicated at the discretion of the physician.
- CIPRO XR tablets should be taken whole and not split, crushed, or chewed.
- CIPRO XR should be administered at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after antacids containing magnesium or aluminum, polymeric phosphate binders (for example, sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate), as well as sucralfate, VIDEX® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder, other highly buffered drugs, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc
- Concomitant administration of Cipro XR with dairy products (like milk or yogurt) or with calcium-fortified products alone should be avoided since decreased absorption is possible. A 2-hour window between substantial calcium intake (greater than 800 mg) and dosing with CIPRO XR is recommended
- Adequate hydration of patients receiving CIPRO XR should be maintained to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine. Crystalluria has been reported with quinolones.
- If a dose is missed, it should be taken anytime but not later than 8 hours prior to the next scheduled dose. If less than 8 hours remain before the next dose, the missed dose should not be taken and treatment should be continued as prescribed with the next scheduled dose. Double doses should not be taken to compensate for a missed dose.
Impaired Renal Function
- In patients with cUTI and acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis with a creatinine clearance of ≤ 30 mL/min, the dose of CIPRO XR should be reduced from 1000 mg to 500 mg daily. The use of Ciprofloxacin 1000 mg XR tablets is not recommended in this patient population.
- For patients on hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis, administer CIPRO XR after the dialysis procedure is completed (maximum dose should be Ciprofloxacin 500 mg XR every 24 hours). The use of Ciprofloxacin 1000 mg XR is not recommended in this patient population
Hypersensitivity: CIPRO XR is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, any member of the quinolone class of antibacterials, or any of the product components.
Tizanidine: Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated
Warnings and precautions
Disabling and Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Central Nervous System Effects
Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions from different body systems that can occur together in the same patient. Commonly seen adverse reactions include tendinitis, tendon rupture, arthralgia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects (hallucinations, anxiety, depression, insomnia, severe headaches, and confusion). These reactions can occur within hours to weeks after starting CIPRO XR. Patients of any age or without pre-existing risk factors have experienced these adverse reactions
Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture: Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have been associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages. Discontinue CIPRO XR immediately if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, in patients who have a history of tendon disorders or have experienced tendinitis or tendon rupture
Peripheral Neuropathy: Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have been associated with an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of CIPRO XR and may be irreversible in some patients.
Discontinue CIPRO XR immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or other alterations in sensations including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense and vibratory sensation and/or motor strength in order to minimize the development of an irreversible condition
Central Nervous System Adverse Reactions: Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO, have been associated with an increased risk of seizures (convulsions), increased intracranial pressure (pscudotumor cerebri), dizziness, and tremors. CIPRO, like other fluoroquinolones, is known to trigger seizures or lower the seizure threshold. Cases of status epilepticus have been reported. As with all fluoroquinolones, use CIPRO with caution in epileptic patients and patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example, severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, previous history of convulsion, reduced cerebral blood flow, altered brain structure, or stroke), or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example, certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction).
Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis: Fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse reactions, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in patients with myasthenia gravis. Avoid CIPRO XR in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis
Hypersensitivity Reactions: Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions, some following the first dose, have been reported in patients receiving quinolone therapy, including CIPRO XR. Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, tingling, pharyngeal or facial edema, dyspnea, urticaria, and itching.
Hepatotoxicity: Cases of severe hepatotoxicity, including hepatic necrosis, life-threatening hepatic failure, and fatal events, have been reported with CIPRO XR. Acute liver injury is rapid in onset (range 1–39 days), and is often associated with hypersensitivity. The pattern of injury can be hepatocellular, cholestatic or mixed. Most patients with fatal outcomes were older than 55 years old. In the event of any signs and symptoms of hepatitis (such as anorexia, jaundice, dark urine, pruritus, or tender abdomen), discontinue treatment immediately.
Risk of Aortic Aneurysm and Dissection: Epidemiologic studies report an increased rate of aortic aneurysm and dissection within two months following use of fluoroquinolones, particularly in elderly patients. The cause for the increased risk has not been identified. In patients with a known aortic aneurysm or patients who are at greater risk for aortic aneurysms, reserve CIPRO XR for use only when there are no alternative antibacterial treatments available.
Serious Adverse Reactions with Concomitant Theophylline Use: Serious and fatal reactions have been reported in patients receiving concurrent administration of CIPRO XR and theophylline. These reactions have included cardiac arrest, seizure, status epilepticus, and respiratory failure. Instances of nausea, vomiting, tremor, irritability, or palpitation have also occurred.
Clostridioides difficile–Associated Diarrhea: Clostridioides difficile (C. difficile)-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including CIPRO XR, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
Prolongation of the QT Interval: Some fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR have been associated with prolongation of the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and cases of arrhythmia. Cases of torsade de pointes have been reported during postmarketing surveillance in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including CIPRO XR.
Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity: Moderate to severe photosensitivity/phototoxicity reactions, the latter of which may manifest as exaggerated sunburn reactions (for example, burning, erythema, exudation, vesicles, blistering, edema) involving areas exposed to light (typically the face, “V” area of the neck, extensor surfaces of the forearms, dorsa of the hands), can be associated with the use of quinolones including CIPRO XR after sun or UV light exposure. Therefore, avoid excessive exposure to these sources of light. Discontinue CIPRO XR if phototoxicity occurs
Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria: Prescribing CIPRO XR Tablets in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Interference with Timely Diagnosis of Syphilis: Ciprofloxacin has not been shown to be effective in the treatment of syphilis. Antimicrobial agents used in high dose for short periods of time to treat gonorrhea may mask or delay the symptoms of incubating syphilis. Perform a serologic test for syphilis in all patients with gonorrhea at the time of diagnosis. Perform follow-up serologic test for syphilis three months after CIPRO XR treatment.
Crystalluria: Crystals of ciprofloxacin have been observed rarely in the urine of human subjects but more frequently in the urine of laboratory animals, which is usually alkaline. Crystalluria related to ciprofloxacin has been reported only rarely in humans because human urine is usually acidic. Avoid alkalinity of the urine in patients receiving CIPRO XR. Hydrate patients well to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine
Blood Glucose Disturbances: Fluoroquinolones, including CIPROXR, have been associated with disturbances of blood glucose, including symptomatic hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, usually in diabetic patients receiving concomitant treatment with an oral hypoglycemic agent (for example, glyburide) or with insulin. In these patients, careful monitoring of blood glucose is recommended. Severe cases of hypoglycemia resulting in coma or death have been reported. If a hypoglycemic reaction occurs in a patient being treated with CIPRO XR, discontinue CIPRO XR and initiate appropriate therapy immediately.
Tizanidine: Contraindicated. Concomitant administration of tizanidine and CIPRO XR is contraindicated due to the potentiation of hypotensive and sedative effects of tizanidine
Theophylline: Avoid Use (Plasma Exposure Likely to be Increased and Prolonged). Concurrent administration of CIPRO XR with theophylline may result in increased risk of a patient developing central nervous system (CNS) or other adverse reactions. If concomitant use cannot be avoided, monitor serum levels of theophylline and adjust dosage as appropriate
Drugs Known to Prolong QT Interval: Avoid Use. Cipro XR may further prolong the QT interval in patients receiving drugs known to prolong the QT interval (for example, class IA or III antiarrhythmics, tricyclic antidepressants, macrolides, antipsychotics)
Oral antidiabetic drugs: Use with caution Glucose-lowering effect potentiated. Hypoglycemia sometimes severe has been reported when CIPRO XR and oral antidiabetic agents, mainly sulfonylureas (for example, glyburide, glimepiride), were co-administered, presumably by intensifying the action of the oral antidiabetic agent. Fatalities have been reported. Monitor blood glucose when CIPRO XR is co-administered with oral antidiabetic drugs
Phenytoin: Use with caution. Altered serum levels of phenytoin (increased and decreased) To avoid the loss of seizure control associated with decreased phenytoin levels and to prevent phenytoin overdose-related adverse reactions upon CIPRO XR discontinuation in patients receiving both agents, monitor phenytoin therapy, including phenytoin serum concentration during and shortly after coadministration of CIPRO XR with phenytoin.
Cyclosporine: Use with caution (transient elevations in serum creatinine). Monitor renal function (in particular serum creatinine) when CIPRO XR is co-administered with cyclosporine.
Anti-coagulant drugs: Use with caution (Increase in anticoagulant effect). The risk may vary with the underlying infection, age and general status of the patient so that the contribution of CIPRO XR to the increase in INR (international normalized ratio) is difficult to assess. Monitor prothrombin time and INR frequently during and shortly after co-administration of CIPRO XR with an oral anti-coagulant (for example, warfarin).
Methotrexate: Use with caution Inhibition of methotrexate renal tubular transport potentially leading to increased methotrexate plasma levels. Potential increase in the risk of methotrexate associated toxic reactions. Therefore, carefully monitor patients under methotrexate therapy when concomitant CIPRO XR therapy is indicated.
Ropinirole: Monitoring for ropinirole-related adverse reactions and appropriate dose adjustment of ropinirole is recommended during and shortly after coadministration with CIPRO XR
Clozapine: Careful monitoring of clozapine associated adverse reactions and appropriate adjustment of clozapine dosage during and shortly after co-administration with CIPRO XR are advised.
NSAIDs: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (but not acetyl salicylic acid) in combination of very high doses of quinolones have been shown to provoke convulsions in pre-clinical studies and in postmarketing.
Sildenafil: Two-fold increase in exposure. Monitor for sildenafil toxicity
Duloxetine: Avoid Use. Five-fold increase in duloxetine exposure. If unavoidable monitor, for duloxetine toxicity
Zolpidem: Avoid Use. Co-administration with ciprofloxacin may increase blood levels of zolpidem, concurrent use is not recommended
Use in specific populations
Pregnancy: Prolonged experience with ciprofloxacin in pregnant women over several decades, based on available published information from case reports, case control studies and observational studies on ciprofloxacin administered during pregnancy, have not identified any drug-associated risk of major birth defects, miscarriage or adverse maternal or fetal outcomes.
Lactation: Published literature reports that ciprofloxacin is present in human milk following intravenous and oral administration. There is no information regarding effects of CIPRO on milk production or the breastfed infant. Because of the potential risk of serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants, including arthropathy shown in juvenile animal, for most indications a lactating woman may consider pumping and discarding breast milk during treatment with CIPRO and an additional two days (five half-lives) after the last dose. Alternatively, advise a woman that breastfeeding is not recommended during treatment with CIPRO and for an additional two days (five half-lives) after the last dose.
Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness of CIPRO XR in pediatric patients and adolescents less than 18 years of age have not been established. Ciprofloxacin causes arthropathy (arthralgia, arthritis) in juvenile animals. CIPRO XR is not indicated for pediatric patients
Renal Impairment: Ciprofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion; however, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the biliary system of the liver and through the intestine. These alternate pathways of drug elimination appear to compensate for the reduced renal excretion in patients with renal impairment. No dosage adjustment is required for patients with uncomplicated UTIs receiving 500 mg CIPRO XR. Dosing in children (less than 18 years of age) with impaired renal function has not been studied
Hepatic Impairment: In preliminary studies in patients with stable chronic liver cirrhosis, no significant changes in ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been observed. The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in patients with acute hepatic insufficiency, have not been studied.
In the event of acute overdosage, reversible renal toxicity has been reported in some cases. Empty the stomach by inducing vomiting or by gastric lavage. Observe the patient carefully and give supportive treatment, including monitoring of renal function, urinary pH and acidify, if required, to prevent crystalluria and administration of magnesium, aluminum or calcium containing antacids, which can reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Adequate hydration must be maintained. Only a small amount of ciprofloxacin (less than 10%) is removed from the body after hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.