Cleocin® Vaginal Ovules (clindamycin phosphate vaginal suppositories)
Clindamycin phosphate is a water-soluble ester of the semisynthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent antibiotic lincomycin. The chemical name for clindamycin phosphate is methyl 7-chloro-6,7,8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl-trans-4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L-threo-α-D-galacto-octopyranoside 2-(dihydrogen phosphate). The monohydrate form has a molecular weight of 522.98, and the molecular formula is C18H34ClN2O8PS•H2O.
CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are semisolid, white to off-white suppositories for intravaginal administration. Each 2.5 g suppository contains clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 100 mg clindamycin in a base consisting of a mixture of glycerides of saturated fatty acids.
Mechanism of Action
Clindamycin inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to the 23S RNA of the 50S subunit of the ribosome. Clindamycin is predominantly bacteriostatic. Although clindamycin phosphate is inactive in vitro, rapid in vivo hydrolysis converts it to active clindamycin.
Resistance to clindamycin is most often caused by modification of the target site on the ribosome, usually by chemical modification of RNA bases or by point mutations in RNA or occasionally in proteins. Cross resistance has been demonstrated between lincosamides,
macrolides and streptogramins B in some organisms. Cross resistance has been demonstrated between clindamycin and lincomycin.
Culture and sensitivity testing of bacteria are not routinely performed to establish the diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE); standard methodology for the susceptibility testing of the potential bacterial pathogens, Gardnerella vaginalis, Mobiluncus
The following in vitro data are available but their clinical significance is unknown. Clindamycin is active in vitro against most isolates of the following organisms reported to be associated with bacterial vaginosis:
- Bacteroides spp.
- Gardnerella vaginalis
- Mobiluncus spp.
- Mycoplasma hominis
- Peptostreptococcus spp.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are indicated for 3-day treatment of bacterial vaginosis in nonpregnant women. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in pregnant women.
NOTE: For purposes of this indication, a clinical diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis is usually defined by the presence of a homogeneous vaginal discharge that (a) has a pH of greater than 4.5, (b) emits a “fishy” amine odor when mixed with a 10% KOH solution, and (c) contains clue cells on microscopic examination. Gram’s stain results consistent with a diagnosis of bacterial vaginosis include (a) markedly reduced or absent Lactobacillus morphology, (b) predominance of Gardnerella morphotype, and (c) absent or few white blood cells.
Other pathogens commonly associated with vulvovaginitis, e.g., Trichomonas vaginalis, Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Candida albicans, and herpes simplex virus, should be ruled out.
CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are contraindicated in individuals with a history of hypersensitivity to clindamycin, lincomycin, or any of the components of this vaginal suppository. CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules are also contraindicated in individuals with a history of regional enteritis, ulcerative colitis, or a history of “antibiotic-associated” colitis.
Pseudomembranous colitis has been reported with nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin, and may range in severity from mild to life-threatening. Orally and parenterally administered clindamycin has been associated with severe colitis, which may end fatally. Diarrhea, bloody diarrhea, and colitis (including pseudomembranous colitis) have been reported with the use of orally and parenterally administered clindamycin, as well as with topical (dermal and vaginal) formulations of clindamycin. Therefore, it is important to consider this diagnosis in patients who present with diarrhea subsequent to the administration of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules, because approximately 30% of the clindamycin dose is systemically absorbed from the vagina.
Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon and may permit overgrowth of clostridia. Studies indicate that a toxin produced by Clostridioides difficile is a primary cause of “antibiotic-associated” colitis.
Systemic clindamycin has been shown to have neuromuscular blocking properties that may enhance the action of other neuromuscular blocking agents. Therefore, it should be used with caution in patients receiving such agents.
Pregnancy: Teratogenic effects
In clinical trials with pregnant women, the systemic administration of clindamycin during the second and third trimesters, has not been associated with an increased frequency of congenital abnormalities.
Clindamycin vaginal ovules should be used during the first trimester of pregnancy only if clearly needed and the benefits outweigh the risks. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in pregnant women during the first trimester of pregnancy.
Limited published data based on breast milk sampling reports that clindamycin appears in human breast milk in the range of less than 0.5 to 3.8 mcg/mL at dosages of 150 mg orally to 600 mg intravenously. It is not known if clindamycin is excreted in human breast milk following the use of vaginally administered clindamycin phosphate.
Clindamycin has the potential to cause adverse effects on the breast-fed infant’s gastrointestinal flora. If clindamycin is required by a nursing mother, it is not a reason to discontinue breastfeeding, but an alternate drug may be preferred. Monitor the breast-fed infant for possible adverse effects on the gastrointestinal flora, such as diarrhea, candidiasis (thrush, diaper rash) or rarely, blood in the stool indicating possible antibiotic-associated colitis.
The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for clindamycin and any potential adverse effects on the breast-fed child from clindamycin or from the underlying maternal condition.
The safety and efficacy of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in the treatment of bacterial vaginosis in post-menarchal females have been established on the extrapolation of clinical trial data from adult women. When a post-menarchal adolescent presents to a health professional with bacterial vaginosis symptoms, a careful evaluation for sexually transmitted diseases and other risk factors for bacterial vaginosis should be considered. The safety and efficacy of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules in pre-menarchal females have not been established.
Clinical studies of CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects.
Vaginally applied clindamycin phosphate contained in CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovules could be absorbed in sufficient amounts to produce systemic effects.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
The recommended dose is one CLEOCIN Vaginal Ovule (containing clindamycin phosphate equivalent to 100 mg clindamycin per 2.5 g suppository) intravaginally per day, preferably at bedtime, for 3 consecutive days.