Treatment of bacterial infections including endocarditis, pneumonia, bone and joint infections, skin and soft-tissue infections, and sepsis that are caused by susceptible strains of penicillinase-producing staphylococci.
Note: Exhibits good activity against Staphylococcus aureus; has activity against many streptococci, but is less active than penicillin and is generally not used in clinical practice to treat streptococcal infections. Antibiotic Class: Penicillin (penicillinase-resistant penicillin)
Antimicrobial Spectrum: Staphylococcus spp., Streptococcal spp.
Mechanism of Action:
Exerts bactericidal activity via inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis by binding one or more of the penicillin binding proteins (PBPs). Exerts bacterial autolytic effect by inhibition of certain PBPs related to the activation of a bacterial autolytic process.
Hematologic: neutropenia, inhibition of platelet aggregation CNS: seizures Hepatic: transient increases in transaminases Other: Jarisch-Herxheimer Reaction (fever, chills, sweating, tachycardia, hyperventilation, flushing, and myalgia)
Adult: 250-500mg po q6h
Pediatric: above 1 month and above 20 kg: 50-100 mg/kg/day po in 4 divided doses
20 kg and above: usual adult dose
Contraindications: Anaphylaxis to cloxacillin or other penicillins
Precautions: Cephalosporin hypersensitivity
Contraceptives – decreased contraceptive effectiveness Live Typhoid
Vaccine – decreased immunological response to the typhoid vaccine
Probenecid – increased cloxacillin levels Warfarin – decreased anticoagulant effectiveness
Pregnancy: Category B: No evidence of risk in humans but studies inadequate.