COLCRYS (colchicine, USP) tablets

COLCRYS (colchicine, USP) tablets

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COLCRYS (colchicine, USP) tablets

Colchicine is an alkaloid chemically described as (S)N- (5,6,7,9-tetrahydro- 1,2,3, 10-tetramethoxy-9-oxobenzo [alpha] heptalen-7-yl) acetamide with a molecular formula of C22H25NO6 and a molecular weight of 399.4

Indications and usage

Gout Flares

COLCRYS (colchicine, USP) tablets are indicated for prophylaxis and the treatment of acute gout flares.

  • Prophylaxis of Gout Flares: COLCRYS is indicated for prophylaxis of gout flares.
  • Treatment of Gout Flares: COLCRYS tablets are indicated for treatment of acute gout flares when taken at the first sign of a flare.

Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF)

COLCRYS (colchicine, USP) tablets are indicated in adults and children 4 years or older for treatment of familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).

Mechanism of Action

The mechanism by which COLCRYS exerts its beneficial effect in patients with FMF has not been fully elucidated; however, evidence suggests that colchicine may interfere with the intracellular assembly of the inflammasome complex present in neutrophils and monocytes that mediates activation of interleukin-1β. Additionally, colchicine disrupts cytoskeletal functions through inhibition of β-tubulin polymerization into microtubules and consequently prevents the activation, degranulation and migration of neutrophils thought to mediate some gout symptoms.

Dosage and administration

COLCRYS tablets are administered orally without regard to meals.

COLCRYS is not an analgesic medication and should not be used to treat pain from other causes.

Gout Flares

Prophylaxis of Gout Flares: The recommended dosage of COLCRYS for prophylaxis of gout flares for adults and adolescents older than 16 years of age is 0.6 mg once or twice daily. The maximum recommended dose for prophylaxis of gout flares is 1.2 mg/day.

Treatment of Gout Flares

The recommended dose of COLCRYS for treatment of a gout flare is 1.2 mg (two tablets) at the first sign of the flare followed by 0.6 mg (one tablet) one hour later. Higher doses have not been found to be more effective. The maximum recommended dose for treatment of gout flares is 1.8 mg over a one-hour period.

FMF

The recommended dosage of COLCRYS for FMF in adults is 1.2 mg to 2.4 mg daily. COLCRYS should be increased as needed to control disease and as tolerated in increments of 0.3 mg/day to a maximum recommended daily dose. If intolerable side effects develop, the dose should be decreased in increments of 0.3 mg/day. The total daily COLCRYS dose may be administered in one to two divided doses.

Recommended Pediatric Dosage

Prophylaxis and Treatment of Gout Flares: COLCRYS is not recommended for pediatric use in prophylaxis or treatment of gout flares.

FMF

The recommended dosage of COLCRYS for FMF in pediatric patients 4 years of age and older is based on age. The following daily doses may be given as a single or divided dose twice daily:

  • Children 4 to 6 years: 0.3 mg to 1.8 mg daily
  • Children 6 to 12 years: 0.9 mg to 1.8 mg daily
  • Adolescents older than 12 years: 1.2 mg to 2.4 mg daily

Contraindications

Patients with renal or hepatic impairment should not be given COLCRYS in conjunction with P-gp or strong CYP3A4 inhibitors (this includes all protease inhibitors except fosamprenavir). In these patients, life-threatening and fatal colchicine toxicity has been reported with colchicine taken in therapeutic doses.

Warnings and precautions

Fatal Overdose: Fatal overdoses, both accidental and intentional, have been reported in adults and children who have ingested colchicine [see Overdosage (10)]. COLCRYS should be kept out of the reach of children.

Blood Dyscrasias: Myelosuppression, leukopenia, granulocytopenia, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia and aplastic anemia have been reported with colchicine used in therapeutic doses.

Drug Interactions: Colchicine is a P-gp and CYP3A4 substrate. Life-threatening and fatal drug interactions have been reported in patients treated with colchicine given with P-gp and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors. If treatment with a P-gp or strong CYP3A4 inhibitor is required in patients with normal renal and hepatic function, the patient’s dose of colchicine may need to be reduced or interrupted

Neuromuscular Toxicity: Colchicine-induced neuromuscular toxicity and rhabdomyolysis have been reported with chronic treatment in therapeutic doses. Patients with renal dysfunction and elderly patients, even those with normal renal and hepatic function, are at increased risk. Concomitant use of atorvastatin, simvastatin, pravastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, gemfibrozil, fenofibrate, fenofibric acid or benzafibrate (themselves associated with myotoxicity) or cyclosporine with COLCRYS may potentiate the development of myopathy

Adverse reactions

Prophylaxis of Gout Flares: The most commonly reported adverse reaction in clinical trials of colchicine for the prophylaxis of gout was diarrhea.

Treatment of Gout Flares: The most common adverse reactions reported in the clinical trial with COLCRYS for treatment of gout flares were diarrhea (23%) and pharyngolaryngeal pain (3%).

FMF: Gastrointestinal tract adverse effects are the most frequent side effects in patients initiating COLCRYS, usually presenting within 24 hours, and occurring in up to 20% of patients given therapeutic doses. Typical symptoms include cramping, nausea, diarrhea, abdominal pain and vomiting. These events should be viewed as dose-limiting if severe, as they can herald the onset of more significant toxicity.

Drug interactions

COLCRYS (colchicine) is a substrate of the efflux transporter P-glycoprotein (P-gp). Of the cytochrome P450 enzymes tested, CYP3A4 was mainly involved in the metabolism of colchicine. If COLCRYS is administered with drugs that inhibit P-gp, most of which also inhibit CYP3A4, increased concentrations of colchicine are likely. Fatal drug interactions have been reported.

Physicians should ensure that patients are suitable candidates for treatment with COLCRYS and remain alert for signs and symptoms of toxicities related to increased colchicine exposure as a result of a drug interaction. Signs and symptoms of COLCRYS toxicity should be evaluated promptly and, if toxicity is suspected, COLCRYS should be discontinued immediately.

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Concomitant Drug Class or FoodNoted or Anticipated OutcomeClinical Comment
HMG-Co A Reductase Inhibitors: atorvastatin, fluvastatin, lovastatin, pravastatin, simvastatinPharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction: the addition of one drug to a stable longterm regimen of the other has resulted in myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (including a fatality)Weigh the potential benefits and risks and carefully monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during initial therapy; monitoring CPK (creatine phosphokinase) will not necessarily prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy.
Other Lipid-Lowering Drugs: fibrates, gemfibrozilPharmacokinetic and/or pharmacodynamic interaction: the addition of one drug to a stable longterm regimen of the other has resulted in myopathy and rhabdomyolysis (including a fatality)Weigh the potential benefits and risks and carefully monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during initial therapy; monitoring CPK (creatine phosphokinase) will not necessarily prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy.
Digitalis Glycosides: digoxinP-gp substrate; rhabdomyolysis has been reportedWeigh the potential benefits and risks and carefully monitor patients for any signs or symptoms of muscle pain, tenderness, or weakness, particularly during initial therapy; monitoring CPK (creatine phosphokinase) will not necessarily prevent the occurrence of severe myopathy

Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C: There are no adequate and well-controlled studies with colchicine in pregnant women. Colchicine crosses the human placenta. While not studied in the treatment of gout flares, data from a limited number of published studies found no evidence of an increased risk of miscarriage, stillbirth or teratogenic effects among pregnant women using colchicine to treat familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).

Labor and Delivery: The effect of colchicine on labor and delivery is unknown.

Nursing Mothers: Colchicine is excreted into human milk. Limited information suggests that exclusively breastfed infants receive less than 10 percent of the maternal weight-adjusted dose. While there are no published reports of adverse effects in breastfeeding infants of mothers taking colchicine, colchicine can affect gastrointestinal cell renewal and permeability. Caution should be exercised, and breastfeeding infants should be observed for adverse effects when COLCRYS is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use: The safety and efficacy of colchicine in children of all ages with FMF has been evaluated in uncontrolled studies. There does not appear to be an adverse effect on growth in children with FMF treated long-term with colchicine. Gout is rare in pediatric patients; safety and effectiveness of colchicine in pediatric patients has not been established.

Geriatric Use: Clinical studies with colchicine for prophylaxis and treatment of gout flares and for treatment of FMF did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 years and older to determine whether they respond differently from younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient with gout should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased renal function, concomitant disease or other drug therapy

Renal Impairment

For prophylaxis of gout flares in patients with mild (estimated creatinine clearance Clcr 50 to 80 mL/min) to moderate (Clcr 30 to 50 mL/min) renal function impairment, adjustment of the recommended dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of colchicine. However, in patients with severe impairment, the starting dose should be 0.3 mg per day and any increase in dose should be done with close monitoring. For the prophylaxis of gout flares in patients undergoing dialysis, the starting doses should be 0.3 mg given twice a week with close monitoring.

For treatment of gout flares in patients with mild (Clcr 50 to 80 mL/min) to moderate (Clcr 30 to 50 mL/min) renal function impairment, adjustment of the recommended dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of COLCRYS. However, in patients with severe impairment, while the dose does not need to be adjusted for the treatment of gout flares, a treatment course should be repeated no more than once every two weeks.

For patients with gout flares requiring repeated courses, consideration should be given to alternate therapy. For patients undergoing dialysis, the total recommended dose for the treatment of gout flares should be reduced to a single dose of 0.6 mg (one tablet). For these patients, the treatment course should not be repeated more than once every two weeks

FMF: Although, pharmacokinetics of colchicine in patients with mild (Clcr 50 to 80 mL/min) and moderate (Clcr 30 to 50 mL/min) renal impairment is not known, these patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of colchicine. Dose reduction may be necessary. In patients with severe renal failure (Clcr less than 30 mL/min) and end-stage renal disease requiring dialysis, COLCRYS may be started at the dose of 0.3 mg/day. Any increase in dose should be done with adequate monitoring of the patient for adverse effects of COLCRYS

Hepatic Impairment

For prophylaxis of gout flares in patients with mild to moderate hepatic function impairment, adjustment of the recommended dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of colchicine. Dose reduction should be considered for the prophylaxis of gout flares in patients with severe hepatic impairment

For treatment of gout flares in patients with mild to moderate hepatic function impairment, adjustment of the recommended COLCRYS dose is not required, but patients should be monitored closely for adverse effects of COLCRYS. However, for the treatment of gout flares in patients with severe impairment, while the dose does not need to be adjusted, the treatment course should be repeated no more than once every two weeks. For these patients, requiring repeated courses for the treatment of gout flares, consideration should be given to alternate therapy

FMF: In patients with severe hepatic disease, dose reduction should be considered with careful monitoring

Overdosage

The exact dose of colchicine that produces significant toxicity is unknown. Fatalities have occurred after ingestion of a dose as low as 7 mg over a four-day period, while other patients have survived after ingesting more than 60 mg. A review of 150 patients who overdosed on colchicine found that those who ingested less than 0.5 mg/kg survived and tended to have milder toxicities such as gastrointestinal symptoms, whereas those who took 0.5 to 0.8 mg/kg had more severe reactions such as myelosuppression. There was 100% mortality in those who ingested more than 0.8 mg/kg.

The first stage of acute colchicine toxicity typically begins within 24 hours of ingestion and includes gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and significant fluid loss, leading to volume depletion. Peripheral leukocytosis may also be seen. Life-threatening complications occur during the second stage, which occurs 24 to 72 hours after drug administration, attributed to multiorgan failure and its consequences. Death is usually a result of respiratory depression and cardiovascular collapse. If the patient survives, recovery of multiorgan injury may be accompanied by rebound leukocytosis and alopecia starting about one week after the initial ingestion.

Treatment of colchicine poisoning should begin with gastric lavage and measures to prevent shock. Otherwise, treatment is symptomatic and supportive. No specific antidote is known. Colchicine is not effectively removed by dialysis

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