COUMADIN (warfarin sodium) tablets

COUMADIN (warfarin sodium) tablets

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COUMADIN (warfarin sodium) tablets

COUMADIN (warfarin sodium) tablets contain warfarin sodium, an anticoagulant that acts by inhibiting vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors. The chemical name of warfarin sodium is 3-(α-acetonylbenzyl)-4-hydroxycoumarin sodium salt, which is a racemic mixture of the R- and Senantiomers. Crystalline warfarin sodium is an isopropanol clathrate. Its empirical formula is C19H15NaO4

Indications and usage

COUMADIN is a vitamin K antagonist indicated for:

  • Prophylaxis and treatment of venous thrombosis and its extension, pulmonary embolism (PE)
  • Prophylaxis and treatment of thromboembolic complications associated with atrial fibrillation (AF) and/or cardiac valve replacement
  • Reduction in the risk of death, recurrent myocardial infarction (MI), and thromboembolic events such as stroke or systemic embolization after myocardial infarction

Limitations of Use: COUMADIN has no direct effect on an established thrombus, nor does it reverse ischemic tissue damage.

Mechanism of Action

Warfarin acts by inhibiting the synthesis of vitamin K-dependent clotting factors, which include Factors II, VII, IX, and X, and the anticoagulant proteins C and S. Vitamin K is an essential cofactor for the post ribosomal synthesis of the vitamin K-dependent clotting factors. Vitamin K promotes the biosynthesis of γ-carboxyglutamic acid residues in the proteins that are essential for biological activity. Warfarin is thought to interfere with clotting factor synthesis by inhibition of the C1 subunit of vitamin K epoxide reductase (VKORC1) enzyme complex, thereby reducing the regeneration of vitamin K1 epoxide

Dosage and administration

The dosage and administration of COUMADIN must be individualized for each patient according to the patient’s International Normalized Ratio (INR) response to the drug. Adjust the dose based on the patient’s INR and the condition being treated. Consult the latest evidencebased clinical practice guidelines regarding the duration and intensity of anticoagulation for the indicated conditions.

Venous Thromboembolism (including deep venous thrombosis [DVT] and PE): Adjust the warfarin dose to maintain a target INR of 2.5 (INR range, 2.0-3.0) for all treatment durations. The duration of treatment is based on the indication as follows:

  • For patients with a DVT or PE secondary to a transient (reversible) risk factor, treatment with warfarin for 3 months is recommended.
  • For patients with an unprovoked DVT or PE, treatment with warfarin is recommended for at least 3 months. After 3 months of therapy, evaluate the risk-benefit ratio of long-term treatment for the individual patient.
  • For patients with two episodes of unprovoked DVT or PE, long-term treatment with warfarin is recommended. For a patient receiving long-term anticoagulant treatment, periodically reassess the risk-benefit ratio of continuing such treatment in the individual patient.

Atrial Fibrillation

In patients with non-valvular AF, anticoagulate with warfarin to target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0-3.0).

  • In patients with non-valvular AF that is persistent or paroxysmal and at high risk of stroke (i.e., having any of the following features: prior ischemic stroke, transient ischemic attack, or systemic embolism, or 2 of the following risk factors: age greater than 75 years, moderately or severely impaired left ventricular systolic function and/or heart failure, history of hypertension, or diabetes mellitus), long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended.
  • In patients with non-valvular AF that is persistent or paroxysmal and at an intermediate risk of ischemic stroke (i.e., having 1 of the following risk factors: age greater than 75 years, moderately or severely impaired left ventricular systolic function and/or heart failure, history of hypertension, or diabetes mellitus), long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended.
  • For patients with AF and mitral stenosis, long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended.
  • For patients with AF and prosthetic heart valves, long-term anticoagulation with warfarin is recommended; the target INR may be increased and aspirin added depending on valve type and position, and on patient factors.

Mechanical and Bioprosthetic Heart Valves

  • For patients with a bileaflet mechanical valve or a Medtronic Hall (Minneapolis, MN) tilting disk valve in the aortic position who are in sinus rhythm and without left atrial enlargement, therapy with warfarin to a target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0-3.0) is recommended.
  • For patients with tilting disk valves and bileaflet mechanical valves in the mitral position, therapy with warfarin to a target INR of 3.0 (range, 2.5-3.5) is recommended.
  • For patients with caged ball or caged disk valves, therapy with warfarin to a target INR of 3.0 (range, 2.5-3.5) is recommended.
  • For patients with a bioprosthetic valve in the mitral position, therapy with warfarin to a target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0-3.0) for the first 3 months after valve insertion is recommended. If additional risk factors for thromboembolism are present (AF, previous thromboembolism, left ventricular dysfunction), a target INR of 2.5 (range, 2.0-3.0) is recommended.

Post-Myocardial Infarction

  • For high-risk patients with MI (e.g., those with a large anterior MI, those with significant heart failure, those with intracardiac thrombus visible on transthoracic echocardiography, those with AF, and those with a history of a thromboembolic event), therapy with combined moderate-intensity (INR, 2.0-3.0) warfarin plus low-dose aspirin (≤100 mg/day) for at least 3 months after the MI is recommended.

Initial and Maintenance Dosing

The appropriate initial dosing of COUMADIN varies widely for different patients. Not all factors responsible for warfarin dose variability are known, and the initial dose is influenced by:

  • Clinical factors including age, race, body weight, sex, concomitant medications, and comorbidities
  • Genetic factors (CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes)

Select the initial dose based on the expected maintenance dose, taking into account the above factors. Modify this dose based on consideration of patient-specific clinical factors. Consider lower initial and maintenance doses for elderly and/or debilitated patients and in Asian patients

Individualize the duration of therapy for each patient. In general, anticoagulant therapy should be continued until the danger of thrombosis and embolism has passed

Dosing Recommendations without Consideration of Genotype

If the patient’s CYP2C9 and VKORC1 genotypes are not known, the initial dose of COUMADIN is usually 2 to 5 mg once daily. Determine each patient’s dosing needs by close monitoring of the INR response and consideration of the indication being treated. Typical maintenance doses are 2 to 10 mg once daily.

Dosing Recommendations with Consideration of Genotype

If the patient’s CYP2C9 and/or VKORC1 genotype are known, consider these ranges in choosing the initial dose. Patients with CYP2C9 *1/*3, *2/*2, *2/*3, and *3/*3 may require more prolonged time (>2 to 4 weeks) to achieve maximum INR effect for a given dosage regimen than patients without these CYP variants.

Contraindications

Pregnancy: COUMADIN is contraindicated in women who are pregnant except in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves, who are at high risk of thromboembolism. COUMADIN can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. COUMADIN exposure during pregnancy causes a recognized pattern of major congenital malformations (warfarin embryopathy and fetotoxicity), fatal fetal hemorrhage, and an increased risk of spontaneous abortion and fetal mortality. If COUMADIN is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, the patient should be apprised of the potential hazard to a fetus.

  • Hemorrhagic tendencies or blood dyscrasias
  • Recent or contemplated surgery of the central nervous system or eye, or traumatic surgery resulting in large open surfaces
  • Bleeding tendencies associated with:
  1. Active ulceration or overt bleeding of the gastrointestinal, genitourinary, or respiratory tract −
  2. Central nervous system hemorrhage
  3. Cerebral aneurysms, dissecting aorta
  4. Pericarditis and pericardial effusions
  5. Bacterial endocarditis
  • Threatened abortion, eclampsia, and preeclampsia
  • Unsupervised patients with conditions associated with potential high level of non-compliance
  • Spinal puncture and other diagnostic or therapeutic procedures with potential for uncontrollable bleeding
  • Hypersensitivity to warfarin or to any other components of this product (e.g., anaphylaxis)
  • Major regional or lumbar block anesthesia • Malignant hypertension

Warnings and precautions

Hemorrhage: COUMADIN can cause major or fatal bleeding. Bleeding is more likely to occur within the first month. Risk factors for bleeding include high intensity of anticoagulation (INR >4.0), age greater than or equal to 65, history of highly variable INRs, history of gastrointestinal bleeding, hypertension, cerebrovascular disease, anemia, malignancy, trauma, renal impairment, certain genetic factors, certain concomitant drugs, and long duration of warfarin therapy.

Tissue Necrosis: COUMADIN can cause necrosis and/or gangrene of skin and other tissues, which is an uncommon but serious risk (<0.1%). Necrosis may be associated with local thrombosis and usually appears within a few days of the start of COUMADIN therapy. In severe cases of necrosis, treatment through debridement or amputation of the affected tissue, limb, breast, or penis has been reported.

Calciphylaxis: COUMADIN can cause fatal and serious calciphylaxis or calcium uremic arteriolopathy, which has been reported in patients with and without end-stage renal disease. When calciphylaxis is diagnosed in these patients, discontinue COUMADIN and treat calciphylaxis as appropriate. Consider alternative anticoagulation therapy.

Acute Kidney Injury: In patients with altered glomerular integrity or with a history of kidney disease, acute kidney injury may occur with COUMADIN, possibly in relation to episodes of excessive anticoagulation and hematuria. More frequent monitoring of anticoagulation is advised in patients with compromised renal function.

Systemic Atheroemboli and Cholesterol Microemboli: Anticoagulation therapy with COUMADIN may enhance the release of atheromatous plaque emboli. Systemic atheroemboli and cholesterol microemboli can present with a variety of signs and symptoms depending on the site of embolization. The most commonly involved visceral organs are the kidneys followed by the pancreas, spleen, and liver. Some cases have progressed to necrosis or death. A distinct syndrome resulting from microemboli to the feet is known as “purple toes syndrome.” Discontinue COUMADIN therapy if such phenomena are observed. Consider alternative drugs if continued anticoagulation therapy is necessary.

Limb Ischemia, Necrosis, and Gangrene in Patients with HIT and HITTS: Do not use COUMADIN as initial therapy in patients with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) and with heparin-induced thrombocytopenia with thrombosis syndrome (HITTS). Cases of limb ischemia, necrosis, and gangrene have occurred in patients with HIT and HITTS when heparin treatment was discontinued and warfarin therapy was started or continued. In some patients, sequelae have included amputation of the involved area and/or death. Treatment with COUMADIN may be considered after the platelet count has normalized.

Endogenous Factors Affecting INR: The following factors may be responsible for increased INR response: diarrhea, hepatic disorders, poor nutritional state, steatorrhea, or vitamin K deficiency.

The following factors may be responsible for decreased INR response: increased vitamin K intake or hereditary warfarin resistance.

Adverse reactions

  • Immune system disorders: hypersensitivity/allergic reactions (including urticaria and anaphylactic reactions)
  • Vascular disorders: vasculitis
  • Hepatobiliary disorders: hepatitis, elevated liver enzymes. Cholestatic hepatitis has been associated with concomitant administration of COUMADIN and ticlopidine.
  • Gastrointestinal disorders: nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, taste perversion, abdominal pain, flatulence, bloating
  • Skin disorders: rash, dermatitis (including bullous eruptions), pruritus, alopecia
  • Respiratory disorders: tracheal or tracheobronchial calcification
  • General disorders: chills

Drug interactions

CYP450 Interactions: CYP450 isozymes involved in the metabolism of warfarin include CYP2C9, 2C19, 2C8, 2C18, 1A2, and 3A4. The more potent warfarin S-enantiomer is metabolized by CYP2C9 while the R-enantiomer is metabolized by CYP1A2 and 3A4.

  • Inhibitors of CYP2C9, 1A2, and/or 3A4 have the potential to increase the effect (increase INR) of warfarin by increasing the exposure of warfarin.
  • Inducers of CYP2C9, 1A2, and/or 3A4 have the potential to decrease the effect (decrease INR) of warfarin by decreasing the exposure of warfarin.

CYP2C9 inhibitors: amiodarone, capecitabine, cotrimoxazole, etravirine, fluconazole, fluvastatin, fluvoxamine, metronidazole, miconazole, oxandrolone, sulfinpyrazone, tigecycline, voriconazole, zafirlukast

CYP2C9 Inducers: aprepitant, bosentan, carbamazepine, phenobarbital, rifampin

CYP1A2 inhibitors: acyclovir, allopurinol, caffeine, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, disulfiram, enoxacin, famotidine, fluvoxamine, methoxsalen, mexiletine, norfloxacin, oral contraceptives, phenylpropanolamine, propafenone, propranolol, terbinafine, thiabendazole, ticlopidine, verapamil, zileuton

CYP1A2 inducers: montelukast, moricizine, omeprazole, phenobarbital, phenytoin, cigarette smoking

CYP3A4 inhibitors: alprazolam, amiodarone, amlodipine, amprenavir, aprepitant, atorvastatin, atazanavir, bicalutamide, cilostazol, cimetidine, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, conivaptan, cyclosporine, darunavir/ritonavir, diltiazem, erythromycin, fluconazole, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, fosamprenavir, imatinib, indinavir, isoniazid, itraconazole, ketoconazole, lopinavir/ritonavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, nilotinib, oral contraceptives, posaconazole, ranitidine, ranolazine, ritonavir, saquinavir, telithromycin, tipranavir, voriconazole, zileuton

CYP3A4 Inducers: armodafinil, amprenavir, aprepitant, bosentan, carbamazepine, efavirenz, etravirine, modafinil, nafcillin, phenytoin, pioglitazone, prednisone, rifampin, rufinamide

Drugs that Increase Bleeding Risk

Because bleeding risk is increased when these drugs are used concomitantly with warfarin, closely monitor patients receiving any such drug with warfarin.

Anticoagulants: argatroban, dabigatran, bivalirudin, desirudin, heparin, lepirudin

Antiplatelet Agents: aspirin, cilostazol, clopidogrel, dipyridamole, prasugrel, ticlopidine

Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory Agents: celecoxib, diclofenac, diflunisal, fenoprofen, ibuprofen, indomethacin, ketoprofen, ketorolac, mefenamic acid, naproxen, oxaprozin, piroxicam, sulindac

Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors: citalopram, desvenlafaxine, duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, fluvoxamine, milnacipran, paroxetine, sertraline, venlafaxine, vilazodone

Use in specific populations

Pregnancy: COUMADIN is contraindicated in women who are pregnant except in pregnant women with mechanical heart valves, who are at high risk of thromboembolism, and for whom the benefits of COUMADIN may outweigh the risks. COUMADIN can cause fetal harm.

Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions: In humans, warfarin crosses the placenta, and concentrations in fetal plasma approach the maternal values. Exposure to warfarin during the first trimester of pregnancy caused a pattern of congenital malformations in about 5% of exposed offspring. Warfarin embryopathy is characterized by nasal hypoplasia with or without stippled epiphyses (chondrodysplasia punctata) and growth retardation (including low birth weight). Central nervous system and eye abnormalities have also been reported, including dorsal midline dysplasia characterized by agenesis of the corpus callosum, Dandy-Walker malformation, midline cerebellar atrophy, and ventral midline dysplasia characterized by optic atrophy. Mental retardation, blindness, schizencephaly, microcephaly, hydrocephalus, and other adverse pregnancy outcomes have been reported following warfarin exposure during the second and third trimesters of pregnancy

Lactation: Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions, including bleeding in a breastfed infant, consider the developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding along with the mother’s clinical need for COUMADIN and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from COUMADIN or from the underlying maternal condition before prescribing COUMADIN to a lactating woman.

Pediatric Use: Adequate and well-controlled studies with COUMADIN have not been conducted in any pediatric population, and the optimum dosing, safety, and efficacy in pediatric patients is unknown. Pediatric use of COUMADIN is based on adult data and recommendations, and available limited pediatric data from observational studies and patient registries. Pediatric patients administered COUMADIN should avoid any activity or sport that may result in traumatic injury.

Renal Impairment: Renal clearance is considered to be a minor determinant of anticoagulant response to warfarin. No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with renal impairment. Instruct patients with renal impairment taking warfarin to monitor their INR more frequently

Hepatic Impairment: Hepatic impairment can potentiate the response to warfarin through impaired synthesis of clotting factors and decreased metabolism of warfarin. Conduct more frequent monitoring for bleeding when using COUMADIN in these patients.

Overdosage

Bleeding (e.g., appearance of blood in stools or urine, hematuria, excessive menstrual bleeding, melena, petechiae, excessive bruising or persistent oozing from superficial injuries, unexplained fall in hemoglobin) is a manifestation of excessive anticoagulation.

Treatment

The treatment of excessive anticoagulation is based on the level of the INR, the presence or absence of bleeding, and clinical circumstances. Reversal of COUMADIN anticoagulation may be obtained by discontinuing COUMADIN therapy and, if necessary, by administration of oral or parenteral vitamin K1.

Prothrombin complex concentrate (PCC), fresh frozen plasma, or activated Factor VII treatment may be considered if the requirement to reverse the effects of COUMADIN is urgent. A risk of hepatitis and other viral diseases is associated with the use of blood products; PCC and activated Factor VII are also associated with an increased risk of thrombosis. Therefore, these preparations should be used only in exceptional or life-threatening bleeding episodes secondary to COUMADIN overdosage.

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