DAYPRO® (oxaprozin) caplets

DAYPRO® (oxaprozin) caplets

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DAYPRO® (oxaprozin) caplets

DAYPRO (oxaprozin) caplet is a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug, available as caplets of 600 mg for oral administration. The chemical name is 4,5-diphenyl-2-oxazole-propionic acid. The molecular weight is 293. Its molecular formula is C18H15NO3

Oxaprozin is a white to off-white powder with a slight odor and a melting point of 162°C to 163°C. It is slightly soluble in alcohol and insoluble in water, with an octanol/water partition coefficient of 4.8 at physiologic pH (7.4). The pKa in water is 4.3.

The inactive ingredients in DAYPRO include: microcrystalline cellulose, hypromellose, methylcellulose, magnesium stearate, polacrilin potassium, starch, polyethylene glycol and titanium dioxide. DAYPRO 600-mg caplets are white, capsule-shaped, scored, film-coated, with DAYPRO debossed on one side and 1381 on the other side.

Indications and usage

DAYPRO is a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug indicated for:

  • Relief of signs and symptoms of Osteoarthritis (OA)
  • Relief of signs and symptoms of Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
  • Relief of signs and symptoms of Juvenile Rheumatoid Arthritis (JRA)

Dosage and administration

  • Use the lowest effective dosage for shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals
  • OA: 1200 mg (two 600 mg caplets) given orally once a day
  • RA: 1200 mg (two 600 mg caplets) given orally once a day
  • JRA: 600 mg once daily in patients 22-31 kg. 900 mg once daily in patients 32-54 kg. 1200 mg once daily in patients ≥55 kg

Mechanism of Action

Oxaprozin has analgesic, anti-inflammatory, and antipyretic properties.

The mechanism of action of DAYPRO, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood but involves inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-1 and COX-2).

Oxaprozin is a potent inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis in vitro. Oxaprozin concentrations reached during therapy have produced in vivo effects. Prostaglandins sensitize afferent nerves and potentiate the action of bradykinin in inducing pain in animal models. Prostaglandins are mediators of inflammation. Because oxaprozin is an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthesis, its mode of action may be due to a decrease of prostaglandins in peripheral tissues.

Contraindications

DAYPRO is contraindicated in the following patients:

  • Known hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylactic reactions and serious skin reactions) to oxaprozin or any components of the drug product
  • History of asthma, urticaria, or other allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, sometimes fatal, anaphylactic reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients
  • In the setting of CABG surgery

Warnings and precautions

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events: Clinical trials of several cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

Gastrointestinal Bleeding, Ulceration, and Perforation: NSAIDs, including DAYPRO, cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the esophagus, stomach, small intestine, or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs

Strategies to Minimize the GI Risks in NSAID-treated patients:

  • Use the lowest effective dosage for the shortest possible duration.
  • Avoid administration of more than one NSAID at a time.
  • Avoid use in patients at higher risk unless benefits are expected to outweigh the increased risk of bleeding. For such patients, as well as those with active GI bleeding, consider alternate therapies other than NSAIDs.
  • Remain alert for signs and symptoms of GI ulceration and bleeding during NSAID therapy.
  • If a serious GI adverse event is suspected, promptly initiate evaluation and treatment, and discontinue DAYPRO until a serious GI adverse event is ruled out.
  • In the setting of concomitant use of low-dose aspirin for cardiac prophylaxis, monitor patients more closely for evidence of GI bleeding

Hepatotoxicity: Elevations of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) or aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (three or more times the upper limit of normal [ULN]) have been reported in approximately 1% of NSAID-treated patients in clinical trials. In addition, rare, sometimes fatal, cases of severe hepatic injury, including fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure have been reported.

Hypertension: NSAIDs, including DAYPRO, can lead to new onset of hypertension or worsening of preexisting hypertension, either of which may contribute to the increased incidence of CV events. Patients taking angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, thiazide diuretics, or loop diuretics may have impaired response to these therapies when taking NSAIDs

Monitor blood pressure (BP) during the initiation of NSAID treatment and throughout the course of therapy

Heart Failure and Edema: The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.

Avoid the use of DAYPRO in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If DAYPRO is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.

Renal Toxicity: Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury.

Hyperkalemia: Increases in serum potassium concentration, including hyperkalemia, have been reported with use of NSAIDs even in some patients without renal impairment. In patients with normal renal function, these effects have been attributed to a hyporeninemic-hypoaldosteronism state.

Anaphylactic Reactions: Oxaprozin has been associated with anaphylactic reactions in patients with and without known hypersensitivity to oxaprozin and in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma

Exacerbation of Asthma Related to Aspirin Sensitivity: A subpopulation of patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma which may include chronic rhinosinusitis complicated by nasal polyps; severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm; and/or intolerance to aspirin and other NSAIDs. Because cross-reactivity between aspirin and other NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, DAYPRO is contraindicated in patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity. When DAYPRO is used in patients with preexisting asthma (without known aspirin sensitivity), monitor patients for changes in the signs and symptoms of asthma.

Serious Skin Reactions: NSAIDs, including oxaprozin, can cause serious skin adverse reactions such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Inform patients about the signs and symptoms of serious skin reactions, and to discontinue the use of DAYPRO at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity. DAYPRO is contraindicated in patients with previous serious skin reactions to NSAIDs

Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS): Drug Reaction with Eosinophilia and Systemic Symptoms (DRESS) has been reported in patients taking NSAIDs such as DAYPRO. Some of these events have been fatal or life-threatening. DRESS typically, although not exclusively, presents with fever, rash, lymphadenopathy, and/or facial swelling. Other clinical manifestations may include hepatitis, nephritis, hematological abnormalities, myocarditis, or myositis. Sometimes symptoms of DRESS may resemble an acute viral infection. Eosinophilia is often present. Because this disorder is variable in its presentation, other organ systems not noted here may be involved. It is important to note that early manifestations of hypersensitivity, such as fever or lymphadenopathy, may be present even though rash is not evident. If such signs or symptoms are present, discontinue DAYPRO and evaluate the patient immediately

Hematologic Toxicity: Anemia h as occurred in NSAID-treated patients. This may be due to occult or gross blood loss, fluid retention, or an incompletely described effect on erythropoiesis. If a patient treated with DAYPRO has any signs or symptoms of anemia, monitor hemoglobin or hematocrit.

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NSAIDs, including DAYPRO, may increase the risk of bleeding events. Co-morbid conditions such as coagulation disorders or concomitant use of warfarin, other anticoagulants, antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may increase this risk. Monitor these patients for signs of bleeding

Masking of Inflammation and Fever: The pharmacological activity of DAYPRO in reducing inflammation, and possibly fever, may diminish the utility of diagnostic signs in detecting infections.

Adverse reactions

Most common adverse reactions (>3%) are: constipation, diarrhea, dyspepsia, nausea, rash

Drug interactions

Drugs That Interfere with HemostasisOxaprozin and anticoagulants such as warfarin have a synergistic effect on bleeding. The concomitant use of oxaprozin and anticoagulants have an increased risk of serious bleeding compared to the use of either drug alone.
Monitor patients with concomitant use of DAYPRO with anticoagulants (e.g., warfarin), antiplatelet drugs (e.g., aspirin), SSRIs, and SNRIs for signs of bleeding
AspirinControlled clinical studies showed that the concomitant use of NSAIDs and analgesic doses of aspirin does not produce any greater therapeutic effect than the use of NSAIDs alone. In a clinical study, the concomitant use of an NSAID and aspirin was associated with a significantly increased incidence of GI adverse reactions as compared to use of the NSAID alone
ACE Inhibitors, Angiotensin Receptor Blockers, and Beta-BlockersNSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or beta-blockers (including propranolol).
In patients who are elderly, volume-depleted (including those on diuretic therapy), or have renal impairment, co-administration of an NSAID with ACE inhibitors or ARBs may result in deterioration of renal function, including possible acute renal failure. These effects are usually reversible.
During concomitant use of DAYPRO and ACE inhibitors, ARBs, or betablockers, monitor blood pressure to ensure that the desired blood pressure is obtained.
During concomitant use of DAYPRO and ACE inhibitors or ARBs in patients who are elderly, volume-depleted, or have impaired renal function, monitor for signs of worsening renal function
When these drugs are administered concomitantly, patients should be adequately hydrated. Assess renal function at the beginning of the concomitant treatment and periodically thereafter.
DiureticsClinical studies, as well as post-marketing observations, showed that NSAIDs reduced the natriuretic effect of loop diuretics (e.g., furosemide) and thiazide diuretics in some patients. This effect has been attributed to the NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
During concomitant use of DAYPRO with diuretics, observe patients for signs of worsening renal function, in addition to assuring diuretic efficacy including antihypertensive effects
DigoxinThe concomitant use of oxaprozin with digoxin has been reported to increase the serum concentration and prolong the half-life of digoxin.
During concomitant use of DAYPRO and digoxin, monitor serum digoxin levels.
MethotrexateConcomitant use of NSAIDs and methotrexate may increase the risk for methotrexate toxicity (e.g., neutropenia, thrombocytopenia, renal dysfunction) because NSAID administration may result in increased plasma levels of methotrexate, especially in patients receiving high doses of methotrexate.
During concomitant use of DAYPRO and methotrexate, monitor patients for methotrexate toxicity.
LithiumNSAIDs have produced elevations in plasma lithium levels and reductions in renal lithium clearance. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15%, and the renal clearance decreased by approximately 20%. This effect has been attributed to NSAID inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis.
During concomitant use of DAYPRO and lithium, monitor patients for signs of lithium toxicity.
CyclosporineConcomitant use of DAYPRO and cyclosporine may increase cyclosporine’s nephrotoxicity.
During concomitant use of DAYPRO and cyclosporine, monitor patients for signs of worsening renal function.
NSAIDs and SalicylatesConcomitant use of oxaprozin with other NSAIDs or salicylates (e.g., diflunisal, salsalate) increases the risk of GI toxicity, with little or no increase in efficacy
The concomitant use of oxaprozin with other NSAIDs or salicylates is not recommended.
CorticosteroidsConcomitant use of corticosteroids with DAYPRO may increase the risk of GI ulceration or bleeding.
Monitor patients with concomitant use of DAYPRO with corticosteroids for signs of bleeding
GlyburideWhile oxaprozin does alter the pharmacokinetics of glyburide, coadministration of oxaprozin to type II non-insulin dependent diabetic patients did not affect the area under the glucose concentration curve nor the magnitude or duration of control.
During concomitant use of DAYPRO and glyburide, monitor patient’s blood glucose in the beginning phase of cotherapy.

Use in specific populations

Pregnancy: Use of NSAIDs, including DAYPRO, can cause premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus and fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios and, in some cases, neonatal renal impairment. Because of these risks, limit dose and duration of DAYPRO use between about 20 and 30 weeks of gestation, and avoid DAYPRO use at about 30 weeks of gestation and later in pregnancy

Premature Closure of Fetal Ductus Arteriosus: Use of NSAIDs, including DAYPRO, at about 30 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy increases the risk of premature closure of the fetal ductus arteriosus.

Oligohydramnios/Neonatal Renal Impairment: Use of NSAIDs at about 20 weeks gestation or later in pregnancy has been associated with cases of fetal renal dysfunction leading to oligohydramnios, and in some cases, neonatal renal impairment.

Lactation: Lactation studies have not been conducted with DAYPRO. It is not known whether DAYPRO is excreted in human milk. DAYPRO should be administered to lactating women only if clearly indicated. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for DAYPRO and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from the DAYPRO or from the underlying maternal condition.

Infertility

Females: Based on the mechanism of action, the use of prostaglandin-mediated NSAIDs, including DAYPRO, may delay or prevent rupture of ovarian follicles, which has been associated with reversible infertility in some women. Published animal studies have shown that administration of prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors has the potential to disrupt prostaglandin-mediated follicular rupture required for ovulation. Small studies in women treated with NSAIDs have also shown a reversible delay in ovulation. Consider withdrawal of NSAIDs, including DAYPRO, in women who have difficulties conceiving or who are undergoing investigation of infertility.

Males: Testicular degeneration was observed in beagle dogs treated with 37.5 mg/kg/day (0.7-times the maximum recommended human daily dose based on body surface area) of oxaprozin for 42 days or 6 months

Pediatric Use: Safety and effectiveness of DAYPRO in pediatric patients below the age of 6 years of age have not been established. The effectiveness of DAYPRO for the treatment of the signs and symptoms of juvenile rheumatoid arthritis (JRA) in pediatric patients aged 6 to 16 years is supported by evidence from adequate and well controlled studies in adult rheumatoid arthritis patients, and is based on an extrapolation of the demonstrated efficacy of DAYPRO in adults with rheumatoid arthritis and the similarity in the course of the disease and the drug’s mechanism of effect between these two patient populations

Geriatric Use: Elderly patients, compared to younger patients, are at greater risk for NSAID-associated serious cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and/or renal adverse reactions. If the anticipated benefit for the elderly patient outweighs these potential risks, start dosing at the low end of the dosing range, and monitor patients for adverse effects

Overdosage

Symptoms following acute NSAID overdosages have been typically limited to lethargy, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting, and epigastric pain, which have been generally reversible with supportive care. Gastrointestinal bleeding has occurred. Hypertension, acute renal failure, respiratory depression, and coma have occurred, but were rare.

Manage patients with symptomatic and supportive care following an NSAID overdosage. There are no specific antidotes. Consider emesis and/or activated charcoal (60 grams to 100 grams in adults, 1 gram to 2 grams per kg of body weight in pediatric patients) and/or osmotic cathartic in symptomatic patients seen within four hours of ingestion or in patients with a large overdosage (5 to 10 times the recommended dosage). Forced diuresis, alkalinization of urine, hemodialysis, or hemoperfusion may not be useful due to high protein binding.

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