Definitions and descriptions

Definitions and descriptions

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There are currently 176 terms in this directory beginning with the letter C.
Calcaneus (kal-KAY-nee-us)
A short bone, the largest of the tarsals; the heel bone
Calcitonin (KAL-si-TOH-nin)
A hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that decreases the reabsorption of calcium from bones
Calcitriol (kal-SI-tree-awl)
The active form of vitamin D
Callus (KAL-us)
Thickening of an area of epidermis
Calorie (KAL-oh-ree)

  1. Lowercase “calorie”: the amount of heat energy needed to change the temperature of 1 gram of water 1 degree centigrade.

  2. Uppercase “Calorie”: a kilocalorie, used to indicate the energy content of foods

Calyx (KAY-liks) (Pl.—calyces)
A funnel-shaped extension of the renal pelvis that encloses the papilla of a renal pyramid and collects urine
Canal of Schlemm (ka-NAL of SHLEM)
Small veins at the junction of the cornea and iris of the eye; the site of reab- sorption of aqueous humor into the blood (Syn.—scleral venous sinus)
Canaliculi (KAN-a-LIK-yoo-lye)
Small channels, such as those in bone matrix that permit contact between adjacent osteocytes
Cancer (KAN-ser)
A malignant tumor or growth of cells
Cancer of the Uterine Cervix
It is caused by persistent infection with human papilloma Virus (HPV). Risk factors include early coitus and childbirth, multiple sexual partners, smoking and HIV infection. It is preventable through avoiding risk factors, screening and vaccination. When detected early, it is curable by surgery or radiotherapy hence regular screening is required for all women.
Candidiasis
It is a fungal infection mainly caused by yeast, Candida albicans. Candidiasis is usually precipitated by prolonged use of contraceptive pills, AIDS, Pregnancy, diabetes, prolonged use of antibiotics, corticosteroid use, and being on immunosuppressive treatment.
Capacitation (KAH-pas-i-TAY-shun)
The maturation of sperm within the female reproductive tract; sperm become capable of fertilization
Capillary (KAP-i-lar-ee)
A blood vessel that takes blood from an arteriole to a venule; walls are one cell in thickness to permit exchanges of materials
Capsule (KAP-suhl)
A gelatinous layer located outside the cell wall of some bacteria; provides resistance to phagocytosis
Carbohydrate (KAR-boh-HIGH-drayt)
An organic compound that contains carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen; includes sugars, starches, and cellulose
Carbonic anhydrase (kar-BAHN-ik an-HIGH-drays)
The enzyme present in red blood cells and other cells that catalyzes the reaction of carbon dioxide and water to form carbonic acid
Carboxyl group (kar-BAHK-sul)
The COOH portion of a molecule such as an amino acid
Carcinogen (kar-SIN-oh-jen)
A substance that increases the risk of developing cancer
Carcinoma (KAR-sin-OH-mah)
A malignant tumor of epithelial tissue
Cardiac cycle (KAR-dee-yak SIGH-kuhl)
The sequence of events in one heartbeat, in which simultaneous contraction of the atria is followed by simultaneous contraction of the ventricles
Cardiac muscle (KAR-dee-yak MUSS-uhl)
The muscle tissue that forms the walls of the chambers of the heart
Cardiac output (KAR-dee-yak OUT-put)
The amount of blood pumped by a ventricle in 1 minute; the resting average is 5 to 6 liters/min
Cardiac reserve (KAR-dee-yak ree-ZERV)
The difference between resting cardiac output and maximum exercise cardiac output
Carotid body (kah-RAH-tid BAH-dee)
The site of chemoreceptors in the wall of the internal carotid artery; detect changes in blood pH and the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide in the blood
Carotid sinus (kah-RAH-tid SIGH-nus)
The site of pressoreceptors in the wall of the internal carotid artery; detect changes in blood pressure
Carpals (KAR-puhls)
The eight short bones of each wrist
Carrier (KAR-ree-yur)

  1. A person who recovers from a disease but continues to be a source of the pathogen and may infect others.

  2. In genetics, a woman with one gene for a sex-linked trait

Carrier enzyme (KAR-ree-yur EN-zime)
An enzyme that is part of a cell membrane and carries out the process of facilitated diffusion of a specific substance (Syn.—transporter)
Cartilage (KAR-ti-lidj)
A connective tissue made of chondrocytes in a protein matrix; is firm yet flexible
Catabolism (kuh-TAB-uh-lizm)
Breakdown or degradation reactions, in which larger molecules are broken down to smaller molecules; often release energy (ATP) and are catalyzed by enzymes
Catalyst (KAT-ah-list)
A chemical that affects the speed of a chemical reaction, while remaining itself unchanged; enzymes are catalysts
Cataract
Cloudiness in the lens seen as a white mark behind the pupil and iris. Conjunctiva and cornea are clear and the whole iris can be seen clearly.
Cataract (KAT-uh-rackt)
An eye disorder in which the lens becomes opaque and impairs vision (from the Latin “waterfall”)
Catecholamines (KAT-e-KOHL-ah-meens)
Epinephrine and norepinephrine, the hormones secreted by the adrenal medulla
Cation (KAT-eye-on)
An ion with a positive charge
Cauda equina (KAW-dah ee-KWHY-nah)
The lumbar and sacral spinal nerves that hang below the end of the spinal cord, before they exit from the vertebral canal
Cavity (KAV-i-tee)
A hollow area inside the body; the principal cavities are the dorsal and ventral cavities
Cecum (SEE-kum)
The first part of the large intestine, the dead-end portion adjacent to the ileum (from the Latin “blindness”)
Cell (plasma) membrane (SELL MEM-brayn)
The membrane made of phospholipids, protein, and cholesterol that forms the outer boundary of a cell and regulates passage of materials into and out of the cell
Cell body (SELL BAH-dee)
The part of a neuron that contains the nucleus
Cell respiration (SELL RES-pi-RAY-shun)
A cellular process in which the energy of nutrients is released in the form of ATP and heat. Oxygen is required, and carbon dioxide and water are produced
Cell-mediated immunity (SELL-MEE-dee-ay-ted im- YOO-ni-tee)
The mechanism of adaptive immunity that does not involve antibody production, but rather the destruction of foreign antigens by the activities of T cells and macrophages
Cellulose (SELL-yoo-lowse)
A polysaccharide produced by plants for their cell walls; it is not digestible by humans but is important as roughage or fiber in the diet
Central (SEN-truhl)
The main part; or in the middle of
Central canal (SEN-truhl ka-NAL)
The hollow center of the spinal cord that contains cerebrospinal fluid
Central nervous system (SEN-tral NER-vuhs)
The part of the nervous system that consists of the brain and spinal cord
Centrioles (SEN-tree-ohls)
The cell organelles that organize the spindle fibers during cell division
Cerebellum (SER-e-BELL-uhm)
The part of the brain posterior to the medulla and pons; responsible for many of the subconscious aspects of skeletal muscle functioning, such as coordination and muscle tone
Cerebral aqueduct (se-REE-bruhl A-kwi-dukt)
A tunnel through the midbrain that permits cerebrospinal fluid to flow from the third to the fourth ventricle
Cerebral cortex (se-REE-bruhl KOR-teks)
The gray matter on the surface of the cerebral hemispheres. Includes motor areas, sensory areas, auditory areas, visual areas, taste areas, olfactory areas, speech areas, and association areas
Cerebrospinal fluid (se-REE-broh-SPY-nuhl)
The tissue fluid of the central nervous system; formed by choroid plexuses in the ventricles of the brain, circulates in and around the brain and spinal cord, and is reabsorbed into cranial venous sinuses
Cerebrovascular accident (se-REE-broh-VAS-kyoo-lur)
A hemorrhagic or ischemic lesion in the brain, often the result of aneurysm, arteriosclerosis, atherosclerosis, or hypertension (Syn.—stroke)
Cerebrum (se-REE-bruhm)
The largest part of the brain, consisting of the right and left cerebral hemispheres; its many functions include movement, sensation, learning, and memory
Cerumen (suh-ROO-men)
The waxy secretion of ceruminous glands
Ceruminous gland (suh-ROO-mi-nus)
An exocrine gland in the dermis of the ear canal that secretes cerumen (earwax)
Cervical (SIR-vi-kuhl)
Pertaining to the neck
Cervical Degenerative Disorders
Cervical degenerative spine disorders (DSD)are common among the adult population. Clinical characteristics include neck pain radiating to upper extremities related to compression and/or irritation of one or more cervical nerve roots, resulting into varying degrees of sensory, motor and reflex changes. Severity may range from mild, transient symptom to chronic and disabling pain.
Cervical vertebrae (SIR-vi-kuhl VER-te-bray)
The seven vertebrae in the neck
Cervix (SIR-viks)
The most inferior part of the uterus that projects into the vagina
Cesarean section (se-SAR-ee-an SEK-shun)
Removal of the fetus by way of an incision through the abdominal wall and uterus
Chaperone (SHA-per-own)
One of a large group of intracellular proteins that is responsible for the proper folding of new proteins and for the repair or disposal of damaged proteins
Chemical clotting (KEM-i-kuhl KLAH-ting)
A series of chemical reactions, stimulated by a rough surface or a break in a blood vessel, that result in the formation of a fibrin clot
Chemical digestion (KEM-i-kuhl dye-JES-chun)
The breakdown of food accomplished by digestive enzymes; complex organic molecules are broken down to simpler organic molecules
Chemoreceptors (KEE-moh-re-SEP-ters)

  1. A sensory receptor that detects a chemical change.

  2. Olfactory receptors, taste receptors, and the carotid and aortic chemoreceptors that detect changes in blood gases and blood pH

Chemotherapy (KEE-moh-THER-uh-pee)
The use of chemicals (medications) to treat disease
Chief cells (CHEEF SELLS)
The cells of the gastric pits of the stomach that secrete pepsinogen, the inactive form of the digestive enzyme pepsin
Chikungunya Fever
Chikungunya fever virus disease is caused by Chikungunya virus, transmitted by the Aedes aegypti mosquito the same which transmit Dengue virus, West Nile and Yellow Fever viruses
Chlamydiae
These organisms are obligate intracellular parasites that are able to reproduce in certain human cells only and are found in two stages: the infectious, nonreproductive particles called elementary bodies (0.3 μm) and the noninfectious, intracytoplasmic, reproductive forms known as initial (or reticulate) bodies (1 μm).
Cholecystokinin (KOH-lee-SIS-toh-KYE-nin)
A hormone secreted by the duodenum when food enters; stimulates contraction of the gallbladder and secretion of enzyme pancreatic juice
Cholera
Cholera is an acute gastrointestinal infection caused by Vibrio cholerae. Infection occurs through ingestion of contaminated water or food by human faeces leading to severe diarrhoea and emesis associated with fluid and electrolyte depletion.
Cholestatic Jaundice
Cholestatic is a pathologic state of reduced bile formation or flow which can be hepatocellular (Intrahepatic), where an impairment of bile formation occurs or ductular (extrahepatic), where impedance to bile flow occurs after it is formed. Intrahepatic causes of cholestatic include viral hepatitis, alcohol, primary biliary cirrhosis, drug toxicity, Hodgkin’s lymphoma and pregnancy. Extrahepatic causes include choledocholithiasis, carcinoma and cirrhosis of the biliary tree.
Cholesterol (koh-LESS-ter-ohl)
A steroid that is synthesized by the liver and is part of cell membranes
Cholinesterase (KOH-lin-ESS-ter-ays)
The chemical inactivator of acetylcholine
Chondrocyte (KON-droh-sight)
A cartilage cell
Chordae tendineae (KOR-day ten-DIN-ee-ay)
Strands of connective tissue that connect the flaps of an AV valve to the papillary muscles
Chorion (KOR-ee-on)
An embryonic membrane that is formed from the trophoblast of the blastocyst and will develop chorionic villi and become the fetal portion of the placenta
Chorionic villi (KOR-ee-ON-ik VILL-eye)
Projections of the chorion that will develop the fetal blood vessels that will become part of the placenta
Chorionic villus sampling (KOR-ee-ON-ik VILL-us)
A diagnostic procedure in which a biopsy of the chorionic villi is performed; used to detect genetic diseases or other abnormalities in the fetus
Choroid layer (KOR-oyd)
The middle layer of the eyeball, contains a dark pigment derived from melanin that absorbs light and prevents glare within the eye
Choroid plexus (KOR-oyd PLEK-sus)
A capillary network in a ventricle of the brain; forms cerebrospinal fluid
Chromatid (KROH-mah-tid)
A potential chromosome formed by the replication of the DNA of a chromosome during interphase; two identical chromatids are formed
and are attached at the centromere; they separate during cell division
Chromatin (KROH-mah-tin)
The thread-like structure of the genetic material when a cell is not dividing; is not visible as individual chromosomes
Chromosomes (KROH-muh-sohms)
Structures made of DNA and protein within the nucleus of a cell. A human cell has 46 chromosomes
Chronic (KRAH-nik)
Characterized by long duration or slow progression
Chronic Broncitis
It is defined by a chronic productive cough for three months in each of two successive years in a patient in whom other causes of chronic cough have been excluded. Patients may get secondary bacterial infection with development of fever and production of thick smelly sputum
Chronic Kidney Diseases (CKD)
It is structural or functional kidney damage present for >3months, with or without a decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR). Early screening in high-risk groups [hypertension, Diabetes and glomerular diseases] is crucial in improving outcome of CKD. Once cause and plan for care has been established, adults with early CKD stages 0-3 can be managed at primary care level.
Chronic pancreatitis
Chronic pancreatitis is long-term (chronic) inflammation of the pancreas that leads to permanent loss of function and morphology of the gland.
Chylomicron (KYE-loh-MYE-kron)
A small fat globule formed by the small intestine from absorbed fatty acids and glycerol
Cilia (SILLY-ah)
Thread-like structures that project through a cell membrane and sweep materials across the cell surface
Ciliary body (SILLY-air-ee BAH-dee)
A circular muscle that surrounds the edge of the lens of the eye and changes the shape of the lens
Ciliated epithelium (SILLY-ay-ted)
The tissue that has cilia on the free surface of the cells
Circle of Willis (SIR-kuhl of WILL-iss)
An arterial anastomosis that encircles the pituitary gland and supplies the brain with blood; formed by the two internal carotid arteries and the basilar (two vertebral) artery
Circulatory shock (SIR-kew-lah-TOR-ee SHAHK)
The condition in which decreased cardiac output deprives all tissues of oxygen and permits the accumulation of waste products
Cisterna chyli (sis-TER-nah KYE-lee)
A large lymph vessel formed by the union of lymph vessels from the lower body; continues superiorly as the thoracic duct
Classic bacteria
These organisms reproduce asexually by binary transverse fission. They do not possess the nucleus typical of eucarya. The cell
walls of these organisms are rigid (with some exceptions, e.g., the mycoplasma).
Clavicle (KLAV-i-kuhl)
The flat bone that articulates with the scapula and sternum (from the Latin “little key”) (Syn.—collarbone)
Cleavage (KLEE-vije)
The series of mitotic cell divisions that take place in a fertilized egg; forms the early multicellular embryonic stages
Cleft palate (KLEFT PAL-uht)
A congenital disorder in which the bones of the hard palate do not fuse, leaving an opening between the oral and nasal cavities
Clinical infection (KLIN-i-kuhl)
An infection in which the patient exhibits the symptoms of the disease
Clitoris (KLIT-uh-ris)
An organ that is part of the vulva; a small mass of erectile tissue at the anterior junction of the labia minora; enlarges in response to sexual stimulation
Clot retraction (KLAHT ree-TRAK-shun)
The shrinking of a blood clot shortly after it forms due to the folding of the fibrin strands; pulls the edges of the ruptured vessel closer together
Coccus (KOK-us)
(Pl.—cocci) A spherical bacterium
Coccyx (KOK-siks)
The last four to five very small vertebrae; attachment site for some muscles of the pelvic floor
Cochlea (KOK-lee-ah)
The snail-shell–shaped portion of the inner ear that contains the receptors for hearing in the organ of Corti
Codon (KOH-don)
The sequence of three bases in DNA or mRNA that is the code for one amino acid; also called a triplet code
Coenzyme (ko-EN-zime)
A non-protein molecule that combines with an enzyme and is essential for the functioning of the enzyme; some vitamins and minerals are coenzymes
Collagen (KAH-lah-jen)
A protein that is found in the form of strong fibers in many types of connective tissue
Collecting tubule (kah-LEK-ting)
The part of a renal tubule that extends from a distal convoluted tubule to a papillary duct
Colloid osmotic pressure (KAH-loyd ahs-MAH-tik)
The force exerted by the presence of protein in a solution; water will move by osmosis to the area of greater protein concentration
Colon (KOH-lun)
The large intestine
Color blindness (KUHL-or BLIND-ness)
The inability to distinguish certain colors, a hereditary trait
Columnar (kuh-LUM-nar)
Shaped like a column; height greater than width; used especially in reference to epithelial tissue
Commensals
Normal inhabitants of skin and mucosa; the normal flora is thus the total commensal population
Common bile duct (KOM-mon BYL DUKT)
The duct formed by the union of the hepatic duct from the liver and the cystic duct from the gallbladder, and joined by the main pancreatic duct; carries bile and pancreatic juice to the duodenum
Communicable disease (kuhm-YOO-ni-kah-b’l)
A disease that may be transmitted from person to person by direct or indirect contact
Compact bone (KOM-pakt BOWNE)
Bone tissue made of osteons (haversian systems); forms the diaphyses of long bones and covers the spongy bone of other bones
Complement (KOM-ple-ment)
A group of plasma proteins that are activated by and bond to an antigen–antibody complex; complement fixation results in the lysis of cellular antigens
Complement fixation test (KOM-ple-ment fik-SAY- shun)
A diagnostic test that determines the presence of a particular antibody in blood or serum
Compliance (pulmonary) (kum-PLY-ans)
The expansibility of the lungs and thoracic wall, necessary for adequate alveolar ventilation
Computed tomography (CT) scan (kom-PEW-ted toh- MAH-grah-fee SKAN)
A diagnostic imaging technique that uses x-rays integrated by computer
Concentration gradient (KON-sen-TRAY-shun GRAY- de-ent)
The relative amounts of a substance on either side of a membrane; diffusion occurs with, or along, a concentration gradient, that is, from high concentration to low concentration
Conchae (KONG-chay)
Three pairs of curved, shelf-like bones that extend into the nasal cavities; they increase the surface area of the nasal mucosa
Conduction (kon-DUK-shun)
1. The heat loss process in which heat energy from the skin is transferred to cooler objects touching the skin.

2. The transfer of any energy form from one substance to another; includes nerve and muscle impulses and the transmission of vibrations in the ear
Condyle (KON-dyel)
A rounded projection on a bone
Condyloid joint (KON-di-loyd)
A diarthrosis that permits movement in one plane and some lateral movement
Cones (KOHNES)
The sensory receptors in the retina of the eye that detect colors (the different wavelengths of the visible spectrum of light)
Congenital (kon-JEN-i-tuhl)
Present at birth
Conjunctiva (KON-junk-TIGH-vah)
The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the white of the eye
Conjunctivitis
This is an inflammation of the conjunctivae and one of the most common causes of red eyes. The cause of conjunctivitis may be bacterial, viral or allergy. Clinical features and treatment guideline depends on the type and cause of conjunctivitis.
Conjunctivitis (kon-JUNK-ti-VIGH-tis)
Inflammation of the conjunctiva, most often due to an allergy or bacterial infection
Connective tissue (kah-NEK-tiv TISH-yoo)
Any of the tissues that connects, supports, transports, or stores materials. Consists of cells and matrix
Contact dermatitis
It is a delayed hypersensitivity reaction following skin coming into contact with a particular chemical. This may be a dye, perfume, rubber, nickel, drugs, skin preparations containing lanolin, iodine, antihistamines, neomycin etc..
Contagious disease (kun-TAY-jus)
A disease that is easily transmitted from person to person by casual contact
Contamination
Microbiological presence of microorganisms on objects, in the environment, or in samples for analysis
Contraction, concentric (kon-TRAK-shun, kon-SEN- trik)
The exertion of force as a muscle shorten
Contraction, eccentric (ek-SEN-trik)
The exertion of force, often opposing gravity, as a muscle lengthens
Contrast (KON-trast)
The characteristic of sensations in which a previous sensation affects the perception of a current sensation
Contusion (kon-TOO-zhun)
A bruise; the skin is not broken but may be painful, swollen, and discolored
Convection (kon-VEK-shun)
The heat loss process in which heat energy is moved away from the skin surface by means of air currents
Convolution (kon-voh-LOO-shun)
A fold, coil, roll, or twist; the surface folds of the cerebral cortex (Syn.—gyrus)
Convulsions
A convulsion is a medical condition where body muscles contract and relax rapidly and repeatedly, resulting in an uncontrolled shaking of the body. convulsions sometimes related to malaria.
Cornea (KOR-nee-ah)
The transparent anterior portion of the sclera of the eye; the first structure that refracts light rays that enter the eye
Corneal Ulcer
This is a painful red eye condition resulting from a raw discontinuity to the corneal epithelium. It may be caused by infection (bacterial, viral e.g Herpes simplex virus and measles, fungal), trauma (physical or chemical) and nutritional (Vitamin A deficiency).
Coronal (frontal) section (koh-ROH-nuhl SEK-shun)
A plane or cut from side to side, separating front and back parts
Coronary vessels (KOR-ah-na-ree VESS-uhls)
The blood vessels that supply the myocardium with blood; emerge from the ascending aorta and empty into the right atrium
Corpus callosum (KOR-pus kuh-LOH-sum)
The band of white matter that connects the cerebral hemispheres
Corpus luteum (KOR-pus LOO-tee-um)
The temporary endocrine gland formed from an ovarian follicle that has released an ovum; secretes progesterone and estrogen
Cortex (KOR-teks)
The outer layer of an organ, such as the cerebrum, kidney, or adrenal gland
Cortisol (KOR-ti-sawl)
A hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that promotes the efficient use of nutrients in stressful situations and has an anti-inflammatory effect
Cough
Cough is a common reflex action that clears the throat of mucus, allergens, dusts or other foreign irritants. a cough can be caused by several conditions both temporary and permanent. Frequency coughing usually indicates the presence of disease.
Cough reflex (KAWF)
A reflex integrated by the medulla that expels irritating substances from the pharynx, larynx, or trachea by means of an explosive exhalation
Covalent bond (ko-VAY-lent)
A chemical bond formed by the sharing of electrons between atoms
Cranial cavity (KRAY-nee-uhl KAV-i-tee)
The cavity formed by the cranial bones; contains the brain; part of the dorsal cavity
Cranial nerves (KRAY-nee-uhl NERVS)
The 12 pairs of nerves that emerge from the brain
Cranial venous sinuses (KRAY-nee-uhl VEE-nus SIGH- nuh-sez)
Large veins between the two layers of the cranial dura mater; the site of reabsorption of the cerebrospinal fluid
Cranium (KRAY-nee-um)
The cranial bones or bones of the skull that enclose and protect the brain
Creatine phosphate (KREE-ah-tin FOSS-fate)
An energy source in muscle fibers; the energy released is used to synthesize ATP
Creatinine (kree-A-ti-neen)
A nitrogenous waste product produced when creatine phosphate is used for energy; excreted by the kidneys in urine
Crest (KREST)
A bony ridge, such as the iliac crest
Cretinism (KREE-tin-izm)
Hyposecretion of thyroxine in an infant; if uncorrected, the result is severe mental and physical retardation
Cross-section (KRAWS SEK-shun)
A plane or cut perpendicular to the long axis of an organ
Crypts of Lieberkühn (KRIPTS of LEE-ber-koon)
The digestive glands of the small intestine; secrete digestive enzymes
Cuboidal (kew-BOY-duhl)
Shaped like a cube; used especially in reference to epithelial tissue
Culture and sensitivity testing (KUL-chur and SEN-si-TIV-i-tee)
A laboratory procedure to determine the best antibiotic with which to treat a bacterial infection
Cushing's Syndrome
Cushing syndrome is a clinical condition resulting from prolonged exposure to excessive glucoccorticoids from either endogenous or exogenous sources. The most common cause of Cushing’s syndrome is from the administration of exogenous sources.
Cushing’s syndrome (KOOSH-ingz SIN-drohm)
Hypersecretion of the glucocorticoids of the adrenal cortex, characterized by fragility of skin, poor wound healing, truncal fat deposition, and thin extremities
Cutaneous senses (kew-TAY-nee-us)
The senses of the skin; the receptors are mainly in the dermis
Cyanosis (SIGH-uh-NOH-sis)
A blue, gray, or purple discoloration of the skin caused by hypoxia and abnormal amounts of reduced hemoglobin in the blood
Cyclic AMP (SIK-lik)
A chemical that is the second messenger in the two-messenger mechanism of hormone action; formed from ATP and stimulates characteristic cellular responses to the hormone
Cystic duct (SIS-tik DUKT)
The duct that takes bile into and out of the gallbladder; unites with the hepatic duct of the liver to form the common bile duct
Cystitis (sis-TIGH-tis)
Inflammation of the urinary bladder; most often the result of bacterial infection
Cytochrome transport system (SIGH-toh-krohm)
The stage of cell respiration in which ATP is formed during reactions of cytochromes with the electrons of the hydrogen atoms that were once part of a food molecule, and metabolic water is formed; aerobic; takes place in the mitochondria of cells (Syn.—electron transport system)
Cytokines (SIGH-toh-kines)
Chemicals released by activated T cells that attract macrophages. Are also released by many cells and tissues as part of cellular communication.
Cytopathic effect.
Obligate intracellular parasites (rickettsiae, chlamydiae) may kill the invaded host cells when they reproduce.
Cytoplasm (SIGH-toh-plazm)
The cellular material between the nucleus and the cell membrane
Cytosol (SIGH-toh-sawl)
The water of cytoplasm
Gafacom
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