Definitions and descriptions

Definitions and descriptions

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There are currently 51 terms in this directory beginning with the letter F.
Facet (FA-sit)
A smooth, relatively flat articular surface on a bone (from the Latin “little face”).
Facial bones (FAY-shul)
The 14 irregular bones of the face.
Facial nerves (FAY-shul)
Cranial nerve pair VII; sensory for taste, motor to facial muscles and the salivary glands.
Facilitated diffusion (fuh-SILL-ah-tay-ted di-FEW-zhun)
The process in which a substance is transported through a membrane in combination with a carrier or transporter molecule.
Facultative anaerobe (FAK-uhl-tay-tive AN-air-robe)
A bacterium that is able to reproduce either in the presence or absence of oxygen.
Fallopian tube (fuh-LOH-pee-an TOOB)
The tubular organ that propels an ovum from the ovary to the uterus by means of ciliated epithelium and peristalsis of its smooth muscle layer (Syn.—uterine tube).
fanconianaemia
fanconianaemia is an autosomal recessive inherited disorder of bone marrow failure syndrome characterized by decreased production of all types of blood cell. The underlying problem appear to be defective DNA repair.
Fascia (FASH-ee-ah)
A fibrous connective tissue membrane that covers individual skeletal muscles and certain organs.
Fatty acid (FA-tee ASS-id)
A lipid molecule that consists of an even-numbered carbon chain of 12–24 carbons with hydrogens; may be saturated or unsaturated; an end product of the digestion of fats.
Female Sexual Dysfunction
Sexual dysfunction in women refers to sexual problems associated with personal distress and may take different forms including lack of sexual drive, impaired arousal, failure to achieve orgasm or dyspareunia. Diagnostic criteria are reached when a sexual problem is recurrent/ persistent and result in personal distress.

The causes of sexual dysfunction are multifactorial and may include psychological problem (depression or anxiety), relationship conflicts, fatigue, stress, prior physical or sexual abuse, medications or physical problems that make sexual activity uncomfortable (endometriosis, genitourinary symptoms of menopause).
Femur (FEE-mur)
The long bone of the thigh.
Fertilization (FER-ti-li-ZAY-shun)
The union of the nuclei of an ovum and a sperm cell; restores the diploid number.
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FEE-tuhl AL-koh-hol)
Birth defects or developmental abnormalities in infants born to women who chronically consumed alcohol during the gestation period.
Fever (FEE-ver)
An abnormally high body temperature, caused by pyrogens; may accompany an infectious disease or severe physical injury.
Fever blister (FEE-ver BLISS-ter)
An eruption of the skin caused by the herpes simplex virus (Syn.—cold sore)
Fiber (FIGH-ber)
Cellulose in the diet that provides exercise for the colon and helps prevent constipation.
Fibrillation (fi-bri-LAY-shun)
Very rapid and uncoordinated heartbeats; ventricular fibrillation is a life-threatening emergency due to ineffective pumping and decreased cardiac output.
Fibrin (FYE-brin)
A thread-like protein formed by the action of thrombin on fibrinogen; the substance of which a blood clot is made.
Fibrinogen (fye-BRIN-o-jen)
A protein clotting factor produced by the liver; converted to fibrin by thrombin.
Fibrinolysis (FYE-brin-AHL-e-sis)
1. The dissolving of a fibrin clot by natural enzymes, after the clot has served its purpose. 2. The clinical use of clot-dissolving enzymes to dissolve abnormal clots.
Fibroblast (FYE-broh-blast)
A connective tissue cell that produces collagen and elastin fibers.
Fibrous skeleton of the heart (FYE-brus SKEL-e-tun)
The fibrous connective tissue that encircles and anchors the edges of the heart valves and prevents stretching of their openings; it also electrically insulates the ventricles from the atria so that impulses for contraction follow only the normal conduction pathway.
Fibula (FIB-yoo-lah)
A long bone of the lower leg; on the lateral side, thinner than the tibia.
Filtration (fill-TRAY-shun)
The process in which water and dissolved materials move through a membrane from an area of higher pressure to an area of lower pressure.
Fimbriae (FIM-bree-ay)
Finger-like projections at the end of the fallopian tube that enclose the ovary.
Fissure (FISH-er)
A groove or furrow between parts of an organ such as the brain (Syn.—sulcus).
Fixed Drug Eruption (FDE)
It is a cutaneous drug reaction that recurs at exactly the same site with repeated exposure to the agent.
Flagellum (flah-JELL-um)
(Pl.—flagella) A long, threadlike projection through a cell membrane; provides motility for the cell.
Flexion (FLEK-shun)
To decrease the angle of a joint
Flexor reflex (FLEKS-er REE-fleks)
A spinal cord reflex in which a painful stimulus causes withdrawal of a body part
Fluorescent antibody test (floor-ESS-ent AN-ti-BAHdee)
A diagnostic test that uses fluorescently tagged antibodies to determine the presence of a particular pathogen in the blood or other tissue specimen.
Flutter (FLUH-ter)
A very rapid yet fairly regular heartbeat
Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) (FAH-li-kuhl)
A gonadotropic hormone produced by the anterior pituitary gland that initiates the production of ova in the ovaries or sperm in the testes
Folliculitis
Folliculitis is an infection of the hair follicles commonly due to Staphylococcus aureus
Fomites (FOH-mights; FOH-mi-teez)
Inanimate objects capable of transmitting infectious microorganisms from one host to another.
Fontanel (FON-tah-NELL)
An area of fibrous connective tissue membrane between the cranial bones of an infant’s skull, where bone formation is not complete.
Foramen (for-RAY-men)
A hole or opening, as in a bone (from the Latin “to bore”).
Foramen ovale (for-RAY-men oh-VAHL-ee)
An opening in the interatrial septum of the fetal heart that permits blood to flow from the right atrium to the left atrium, bypassing the fetal lungs.
Fossa (FAH-sah)
A shallow depression in a bone (from the Latin “ditch”).
Fovea (FOH-vee-ah)
A depression in the retina of the eye directly behind the lens; contains only cones and is the area of best color vision.
Fracture (FRAK-chur)
A break in a bone.
Free nerve ending (FREE NERV END-ing)
The end of a sensory neuron; the receptor for the sense of pain, heat, or cold in the skin and pain in the viscera.
Free radical (FREE RA-di-kuhl)
A molecule with an unpaired electron that is very reactive; formed during normal metabolism and contributes to the natural deterioration (aging) of cells.
Frontal bone (FRUN-tuhl)
The flat cranial bone that forms the forehead.
Frontal lobes (FRUN-tuhl LOWBS)
The most anterior parts of the cerebrum; contain the motor areas for voluntary movement and the motor speech area.
Frontal section (FRUN-tuhl SEK-shun)
A plane separating the body into front and back portions (Syn.—coronal section).
Frostbite (FRAWST-bite)
The freezing of part of the body, resulting in tissue damage or death (gangrene).
Fructose (FRUHK-tohs)
A monosaccharide, a six-carbon sugar that is part of the sucrose in food; converted to glucose by the liver.
Functional layer (FUNK-shun-ul LAY-er)
The vascular layer of the endometrium that is lost in menstruation, then regenerated by the basilar layer.
Fungi
Fungi (Mycophyta) are nonmotile eukaryotes with rigid cell walls and a classic cell nucleus. They contain no photosynthetic pigments and are carbon heterotrophic, that is, they utilize various organic nutrient substrates (in contrast to carbon autotrophic plants). Of more than 50 000 fungal species, only about 300 are known to be human pathogens. Most fungal infections occur as a result of weakened host immune defenses.
Fungus (FUNG-gus)
Any of the organisms of the kingdom Fungi; they lack chlorophyll; may be unicellular or multicellular, saprophytic or parasitic; include yeasts, molds, and mushrooms.
Gafacom
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