Definitions and descriptions

Definitions and descriptions

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There are currently 65 terms in this directory beginning with the letter G.
G6PD deficiency
G6PD deficiency is an inherited recessive genetic disorder, haemolysis results from oxidative damage to RBCs due to loss of protective effect of the enzyme G6PD
Galactose (guh-LAK-tohs)
A monosaccharide, a six-carbon sugar that is part of the lactose in food; converted to glucose by the liver.
Gallbladder (GAWL-bla-der)
An accessory organ of digestion; a sac located on the undersurface of the liver; stores and concentrates bile.
Gallstones (GAWL-stohns)
Crystals formed in the gallbladder or bile ducts; the most common type is made of cholesterol.
Gametes (GAM-eets)
The male or female reproductive cells, sperm cells or ova, each with the haploid number of chromosomes.
Gamma globulins (GA-mah GLAH-byoo-lins)
Antibodies.
Ganglion (GANG-lee-on)
A group of neuron cell bodies located outside the CNS.
Ganglion neurons (GANG-lee-on NYOOR-onz)
The neurons that form the optic nerve; carry impulses from the retina to the brain.
Gastric juice (GAS-trik JOOSS)
The secretion of the gastric pits of the stomach; contains hydrochloric acid, pepsin, gastrin, and mucus.
Gastric pits (GAS-trik PITS)
The glands of the mucosa of the stomach; secrete gastric juice.
Gastric ulcer (GAS-trik UL-ser)
An erosion of the gastric mucosa and submucosa.
Gastrin (GAS-trin)
A hormone secreted by the G cells of the gastric mucosa when food enters the stomach; stimulates the secretion of gastric juice.
Gastritis
This is an inflammatory mucosal response to injury from variety of agents and mechanisms including infections, drugs, alcohol, acute stress, radiation, allergy, acid and bile, ischemia or direct trauma. The inflammation may involve the entire stomach (pangastritis) or aregion of the stomach (antral gastritis) while the severity of inflammation may be erosive or non erosive.
Gastroduodenal ulcers (PUD)
This is a disorder resulting from breakdown of mucosal defense mechanisms against hydrochloric acid and proteolytic enzymes, most secondary to H.Pylori infection or NSAID use
GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE
GERD is a condition that develops when the reflux of stomach contents causes troublesome symptoms or com­plications. It affects 20% of adults. The two most common symptoms are heartburn and regurgitation. However, other symptoms of GERD include dyspepsia, dysphagia, belch­ing, chest pain, cough, and hoarseness. Although most patients have mild disease, esophageal mucosal damage (reflux esophagitis) develops in up to one-third and more serious complications develop in a few others. Several fac­tors may contribute to GERD.
Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD)
It is a disorder resulting from gastric acid-pepsin activity and other gastric contents into the esophagus due to incompetent barriers  at the gastroesophageal junction leading to active inflammation of the distal third of the esophagus.
Gene (JEEN)
A segment of DNA that is the genetic code for a particular protein and is located in a definite position on a particular chromosome.
Gene expression (JEEN ek-SPRESH-un)
The transcription and translation of a DNA gene to mRNA and to a protein that gives a cell (or organ or entire organism) a particular characteristic.
Generalized infection
Lymphogenous and/or hematogenous spread of invading pathogen starting from the portal of entry; infection of organs to which pathogen shows a specific affinity (organotropism); three stages: incubation, generalization, organ manifestation
Genetic code (je-NET-ik KOHD)
The DNA code for proteins that is shared by all living things; the sequence of bases of the DNA in the chromosomes of cells.
Genetic disease (je-NET-ik di-ZEEZ)
A hereditary disorder that is the result of an incorrect sequence of bases in the DNA (gene) of a particular chromosome. May be passed to offspring.
Genetic immunity (je-NET-ik im-YOO-ni-tee)
The immunity provided by the genetic makeup of a species; reflects the inability of certain pathogens to cause disease in certain host species.
Genital Ulcer Disease (GUD)
GUD is a loss of continuity of skin mucous membrane producing one or more lesions in the genital area. The common aetiologies of GUD are Treponema pallidum, Haemophilus ducreyi, Chlamydia trachomatis, Herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV)) and Calymmatobacterium granulomatis.
Genome (JEE-nohm)
The total genetic information contained in the chromosomes of a cell of a species.
Genotype (JEE-noh-type)
The genetic makeup of an individual; the genes that are present.
Gestation (jes-TAY-shun)
The length of time from conception to birth; the human gestation period averages 280 days.
Giantism (JIGH-an-tizm)
Excessive growth of the body or its parts; may be the result of hypersecretion of growth hormone in childhood.
Giardiasis
It is the infestation of the upper small intestine by the flagellate protozoan Giardia lamblia (or G. intestinalis), cytopathic effects of which leads to malabsorption and diarrhea. It is more common in immune compromised individuals and is acquired through ingestion of contaminated water
Gingiva (jin-JIGH-vah)
The gums; the tissue that covers the upper and lower jaws around the necks of the teeth.
Gingivitis
Inflammatory changes in the gingival develop within a couple of days of undisturbed bacterial growth on the gingival margin of the erupted tooth in the oral cavity
Gland (GLAND)
A cell or group of epithelial cells that are specialized to secrete a substance.
Glaucoma
Glaucoma is a syndrome characterized by optic nerve damage and peripheral visual field loss which may be associated with raised intraocular pressure. The main classes of glaucoma are open angle glaucoma and angle closure glaucoma.
Glaucoma (glaw-KOH-mah)
An eye disease often characterized by increased intraocular pressure due to excessive accumulation of aqueous humor; may result in optic nerve damage and blindness.
Glial cells (GLEE-al SELLS)
The neuroglia of the central nervous system.
Gliding joint (GLY-ding)
A diarthrosis that permits a sliding movement.
Globulins (GLAH-byoo-lins)
Proteins that circulate in blood plasma; alpha and beta globulins are synthesized by the liver; gamma globulins (antibodies) are synthesized by lymphocytes.
Globulomaxillary cyst
The globulomaxillary cyst is a cyst that appears between a maxillary lateral incisor and the adjacent canine. The globulomaxillary cyst often causes the roots of adjacent teeth to diverge.
Glomerular filtration (gloh-MER-yoo-ler fill-TRAYshun)
The first step in the formation of urine; blood pressure in the glomerulus forces plasma, dissolved materials, and small proteins into Bowman’s capsule; this fluid is then called renal filtrate.
Glomerular filtration rate (gloh-MER-yoo-ler fill-TRAY-shun RAYT)
The total volume of renal filtrate that the kidneys form in 1 minute; average is 100–125 mL/minute.
Glomerulus (gloh-MER-yoo-lus)
A capillary network that is enclosed by Bowman’s capsule; filtration takes place from the glomerulus to Bowman’s capsule (from the Latin “little ball”).
Glossopharyngeal nerves (GLAH-so-fuh-RIN-jee-uhl)
Cranial nerve pair IX; sensory for taste and cardiovascular reflexes; motor to salivary glands.
Glottis (GLAH-tis)
The opening between the vocal cords; an air passageway.
Glucagon (GLOO-kuh-gahn)
A hormone secreted by the pancreas that increases the blood glucose level.
Glucocorticoids (GLOO-koh-KOR-ti-koids)
The hormones secreted by the adrenal cortex that affect the metabolism of nutrients; cortisol is the major hormone in this group.
Gluconeogenesis (GLOO-koh-nee-oh-JEN-i-sis)
The conversion of excess amino acids to simple carbohydrates or to glucose to be used for energy production.
Glucose (GLOO-kos)
A hexose monosaccharide that is the primary energy source for body cells.
Glycerol (GLISS-er-ol)
A three-carbon molecule that is one of the end products of the digestion of fats.
Glycogen (GLY-ko-jen)
A polysaccharide that is the storage form for excess glucose in the liver and muscles.
Glycogenesis (GLY-koh-JEN-i-sis)
The conversion of glucose to glycogen to be stored as potential energy.
Glycogenolysis (GLY-koh-jen-AHL-i-sis)
The conversion of stored glycogen to glucose to be used for energy production.
Glycolysis (gly-KAHL-ah-sis)
The first stage of the cell respiration of glucose, in which glucose is broken down to two molecules of pyruvic acid and ATP is formed; anaerobic; takes place in the cytoplasm of cells.
Glycosuria (GLY-kos-YOO-ree-ah)
The presence of glucose in urine; often an indication of diabetes mellitus.
Goblet cell (GAHB-let)
Unicellular glands that secrete mucus; found in the respiratory and GI mucosa.
Goiter (GOY-ter)
An enlargement of the thyroid gland, often due to a lack of dietary iodine.
Golgi apparatus (GOHL-jee)
A cell organelle found in the cytoplasm; synthesizes carbohydrates and packages materials for secretion from the cell.
Gonorrhea (GAH-nuh-REE-ah)
A sexually transmitted disease caused by the bacterium Neisseria gonorrhoeae; may also cause conjunctivitis in newborns of infected women.
Gout
Gout is a recurrent acute arthritis of peripheral joints which results from deposition, in and about the joints and tendons, of crystals of monosodium urate from supersaturated hyperuricaemic body fluids. The arthritis may become chronic.
Graafian follicle (GRAF-ee-uhn FAH-li-kuhl)
A mature ovarian follicle that releases an ovum.
Gram negative (GRAM NEG-uh-tiv)
Bacteria that appear red or pink after Gram staining.
Gram positive (GRAM PAHS-uh-tiv)
Bacteria that appear purple or blue after Gram staining.
Gram stain (GRAM STAYN)
A staining procedure for bacteria to make them visible microscopically and to determine their Gram reaction, which is important in the identification of bacteria.
Graves’ disease (GRAYVES)
Graves’ disease (GRAYVES) Hypersecretion of thyroxine, believed to be an autoimmune disease; symptoms reflect the elevated metablic rate.
Gray matter (GRAY)
Nerve tissue within the central nervous system that consists of the cell bodies of neurons.
Growth hormone (GH) (GROHTH HOR-mohn)
A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary gland that increases the rate of cell division and protein synthesis.
Gyrus (JIGH-rus)
A fold or ridge, as in the cerebral cortex (Syn.—convolution).
Gafacom
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