Definitions and descriptions

Definitions and descriptions

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There are currently 67 terms in this directory beginning with the letter I.
Idiopathic (ID-ee-oh-PATH-ik)
A disease or disorder of unknown cause.
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP)
Idiopathic thrombocytopenic Purpura (ITP) is an acquired disease of children and adults and defined as isolated thrombocytopenia with no clinically apparent condition or other causes of thrombocytopenia. The diagnosis relies on exclusion of other causes of thrombocytopenia.
IgA proteases.
Mucosal secretions contain the secretory antibodies of the sIgA1 class responsible for the specific local immunity of the mucosa. Classic
mucosal parasites such as gonococci, meningococci and Haemophilus influenzae produce proteases that destroy this immunoglobulin.
Ileocecal valve (ILL-ee-oh-SEE-kuhl VALV)
The tissue of the ileum that extends into the cecum and acts as a sphincter; prevents the backup of fecal material into the small intestine.
Ileum (ILL-ee-um)
The third and last portion of the small intestine, about 11 feet long.
Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS)
IRIS is a phenomenon associated with the occurrence or worsening of opportunistic infections/ malignancies which can occur early after initiation of ART or at least (several months) during the course of ART.
Immunity (im-YOO-ni-tee)
The state of being protected from an infectious disease, usually by having been exposed to the infectious agent or a vaccine; human immunity has two major components: innate and adaptive. Innate immunity is nonspecific, has no memory, and consists of anatomic barriers, defensive cells, and chemicals; adaptive immunity is specific, has memory, and may involve antibodies.
Impetigo
Is a contagious primary infection of the skin involving the stratum corneum of epidermis. It is particularly common in children and people in disadvantaged areas. Self-inoculation and small family or community outbreaks are frequent.
Impetigo (IM-pe-TYE-go)
A bacterial infection of the skin that occurs most often in children.
Implantation (IM-plan-TAY-shun)
Embedding of the embryonic blastocyst in the endometrium of the uterus 5 to 8 days after fertilization.
In vitro fertilization (IN VEE-troh FER-ti-li-ZAY-shun)
Fertilization outside the body, in which sperm and ova are mixed in laboratory glassware; early embryos may then be introduced into the uterus for implantation.
Inactivator (in-AK-ti-vay-tur)
A chemical that inactivates a neurotransmitter to prevent continuous impulses.
Inapparent (or subclinical) infection
Infection without outbreak of clinical symptoms
Inapparent infection (IN-uh-PAR-ent)
An infection without symptoms (Syn.—subclinical, asymptomatic).
Incidence
Number of new cases of a disease within a given time period
Incomplete abortion
Some of the products of conception have been retained in the uterine cavity and there is persistent lower abdominal pain, continuing per vaginum bleeding and open cervix.
Incubation period
Time between infection and manifestation of disease symptoms; this specific disease characteristic can be measured in hours, days, weeks,
or even years
Incubation period (IN-kew-BAY-shun)
In the course of an infectious disease, the time between the entry of the pathogen and the onset of symptoms.
Incus (ING-kuss)
The second of the three auditory bones in the middle ear; transmits vibrations from the malleus to the stapes.
Inevitable abortion
Abortion is said to be inevitable when it is not possible for the pregnancy to continue and the cervix is dilated, but all the products of conception are in situ.
Infarct (IN-farkt)
An area of tissue that has died due to lack of a blood supply.
Infection
Invasion of a host organism by microorganisms, proliferation of the invading organisms, and host reaction
Infection (in-FEK-shun)
A disease process caused by the invasion and multiplication of a microorganism.
Infection spectrum
The totality of host species “susceptible” to infection by a given pathogen
Infectious disease (or clinical infection)
Infection with outbreak of clinical symptoms
Infective Endocarditis (IE)
The infective process of endocardial layer of the heart can involve native or prosthetic valve and congenital defects/shunts. Alpha–haemolytic streptococci are the most common causes of native valve endocarditis but Staphylococcus aureus is more likely if the disease is rapidly progressive with high fever or is related to a prosthetic valve (Staphylococcus epidermidis).
Inferior (in-FEER-ee-your)
Below or lower.
Inferior vena cava (VEE-nah KAY-vah)
The vein that returns blood from the lower body to the right atrium.
Infertility
Infertility is a condition of the reproductive system defined by the failure to achieve a clinical pregnancy after 12 months or more of regular unprotected sexual intercourse.
Infestation (in-fess-TAY-shun)
The harboring of parasites, especially worms or arthropods.
Inflammation (in-fluh-MAY-shun)
The reactions of tissue to injury.
Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is an idiopathic disease involving an immune reaction of the body to its own intestinal tract. The 2 major types of IBD are ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn disease (CD). Pathologically, ulcerative colitis is limited to the colon while Crohn disease can involve any segment of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract from the mouth to the anus.
Inguinal bubo (IB)
Inguino and femoral bubos are localized enlargements of the lymph nodes in the groin area, which are painful and may be fluctuant. They are frequently associated with lymphogranuloma vebereum and chancroid caused by Chlamydia trachomatis and Haemophilus ducreyi respectively.
Inguinal canal (IN-gwi-nuhl ka-NAL)
The opening in the lower abdominal wall that contains a spermatic cord in men and the round ligament of the uterus in women; a natural weak spot that may be the site of hernia formation.
Inhibin (in-HIB-in)
A protein hormone secreted by the sustentacular cells of the testes and by the ovaries; inhibits secretion of follicle-stimulating hormone.
Inorganic (IN-or-GAN-ik)
A chemical compound that does not contain carbon–hydrogen covalent bonds; includes water, salts, and oxygen.
Insertion (in-SIR-shun)
The more movable attachment point of a muscle to a bone.
Inspiration (in-spi-RAY-shun)
Inhalation; the intake of air to the lungs.
Inspiratory reserve (in-SPYR-ah-tor-ee ree-ZERV)
The volume of air beyond tidal volume that can be inhaled with the deepest inhalation; average: 2000–3000 mL.
Insulin (IN-syoo-lin)
A protein hormone secreted by the pancreas that decreases the blood glucose level by increasing storage of glycogen and use of glucose by cells for energy production.
Intensity (in-TEN-si-tee)
The degree to which a sensation is felt.
Intercalated disc (IN-ter-kuh-lay-ted DISK)
A modification of the cell membrane of cardiac muscle cells; the end membranes of adjacent cells are folded and fit into one another; permits rapid transmission of the electrical impulses that bring about contraction.
Intercostal muscles (IN-ter-KAHS-tuhl MUSS-uhls)
The skeletal muscles between the ribs; the external intercostals pull the ribs up and out for inhalation; the internal intercostals pull the ribs down and in for a forced exhalation (Syn.—spareribs).
Intercostal nerves (IN-ter-KAHS-tuhl NERVS)
The pairs of peripheral nerves that are motor to the intercostal muscles.
Interferon (in-ter-FEER-on)
A chemical produced by T cells or by cells infected with viruses; is part of innate immunity and prevents the reproduction of viruses.
Internal (in-TER-nuhl)
On the inside, or away from the surface.
Internal anal sphincter (in-TER-nuhl AY-nuhl SFINKter)
The circular smooth muscle that surrounds the anus; relaxes as part of the defecation reflex to permit defecation.
Internal respiration (in-TER-nuhl RES-pi-RAY-shun)
The exchange of gases between the blood in the systemic capillaries and the surrounding tissue fluid and cells.
Internal urethral sphincter (yoo-REE-thruhl SFINK-ter)
The smooth muscle sphincter at the junction of the urinary bladder and the urethra; relaxes as part of the urination reflex to permit urination.
Interneuron (IN-ter-NYOOR-on)
A nerve cell entirely within the central nervous system.
Interphase (IN-ter-fayz)
The period of time between mitotic divisions during which DNA replication takes place.
Interstitial cells (in-ter-STISH-uhl SELLS)
The cells in the testes that secrete testosterone when stimulated by LH.
Intestinal glands (in-TESS-tin-uhl)
1. The glands of the small intestine that secrete digestive enzymes. 2. The glands of the large intestine that secrete mucus.
Intracellular fluid (IN-trah-SELL-yoo-ler FLOO-id)
The water found within cells.
Intramuscular injection (in-trah-MUSS-kew-ler in-JEKshun)
An injection of a medication into a muscle.
Intrapulmonic pressure (in-trah-pull-MAHN-ik)
The air pressure within the bronchial tree and alveoli; fluctuates below and above atmospheric pressure during breathing.
Intrinsic factor (in-TRIN-sik FAK-ter)
A chemical produced by the parietal cells of the gastric mucosa; necessary for the absorption of vitamin B12.
Involuntary muscle (in-VAHL-un-tary MUSS-uhl)
Another name for smooth muscle tissue.
Ion (EYE-on)
An atom or group of atoms with an electrical charge.
Ionic bond (eye-ON-ik)
A chemical bond formed by the loss and gain of electrons between atoms.
Irritable Bowel Syndrome
Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a functional GI disorder characterized by abdominal pain and altered bowel habits in the absence of specific and unique organic pathology.
Ischemic (iss-KEY-mik)
Lack of blood to a body part, often due to an obstruction in circulation.
Ischium (ISH-ee-um)
The lower posterior part of the hip bone.
Islets of Langerhans (EYE-lets of LAHNG-er-hanz)
The endocrine portions of the pancreas that secrete insulin and glucagon (Syn.—pancreatic islets).
Isometric exercise (EYE-so-MEH-trik)
Contraction of muscles without movement of a body part.
Isotonic (EYE-so-TAHN-ik)
Having the same concentration of dissolved materials as the solution used as a comparison.
Isotonic exercise (EYE-so-TAHN-ik)
Contraction of muscles with movement of a body part.
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