Definitions and descriptions

Definitions and descriptions

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There are currently 15 terms in this directory beginning with the letter R.
Rabies
Rabies is an acute viral infection of the central nervous system that affects all mammals and is transmitted to man by animal bites via infected secretions, usually saliva.
Radicular (Apical) cyst
Radicular cyst is an inflammatory jaw cyst originating from epithelial remnants of the periodontal ligament because of inflammation that is generally a consequence of pulp necrosis. The resulting cyst commonly involves the apex of the affected tooth either by dental caries or trauma.
Ranular Cyst
A mucous extravasation cyst involving a sublingual gland and is a type of mucocele found on the floor of the mouth.
Reflux nephropathy
A type of chronic interstitial nephritis associated with vesico-ureteric reflux (VUR) in early life with the appearance of scars in the kidney as demonstrated by various imaging modalities. May be associated with renal dysplasia and other congenital abnormalities of the urinary tract. Including urethral valves.
Refractive errors
This is a condition where one presents with poor vision either at near or distance at any age. There are 4 types of refractive errors namely presbyopia, myopia, astigmatism and hyperopia. A patient may have more than one type of refractive error.
Reinfection
Series of infections by different pathogens
Relapses
Series of infections by the same pathogen
Resistant (Refractory) Hypertension
Hypertension that remains >140/90mmHg despite the use of 3 antihypertensive drugs in a rational combination at full doses and including a diuretic i.e. thiazide. Consider all correctable causes of refractory hypertension before you refer.
Retinitis
Is seen in advanced HIV infection with CD4 count of less 100cells/mm3. Presents with characteristic retinal appearance of necrosis (white exudates and haemorrhage at the edge of the exudates. Visual loss is irreversible.
Retinoblastoma
It is the commonest childhood malignant tumor of the eyes. It is diagnosed between the first 1-3 years of life.
Rhesus incompatibility
Incompatibility between an infant’s blood type and that of its mother, resulting in destruction of the infant’s red blood cells (hemolytic anemia) during pregnancy and after birth by antibodies from its mother’s blood.
Rheumatoid Arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis is an autoimmune condition whereby the immune system attacks the synovial membrane of joints, initially of the small joints but progressively involving the big joints. It is a chronic multisystem disease of unknown etiology.
Rickets
Refers to softening and weakening of bones in children, usually due to inadequate vitamin D. Vitamin D promotes the body’s absorption of calcium and phosphorus. Extreme or prolonged lack of vitamin D makes it difficult to maintain proper calcium and phosphorus levels in bones, which can cause rickets.
Rickettsiae.
These organisms are obligate intracellular parasites, rodshaped to coccoid, that reproduce by binary transverse fission. The diameter
of the individual cell is from 0.3–1 μm.
Rift Valley Fever
This is a viral zoonosis that is primarily spread amongstanimals by the bite of infected mosquitoes, transmitting the Rift Valley Virus. Aedes mosquitoes are the main vector biting animals. Transmission to human is mainly through direct or indirect contact with blood or organs of infected animals.
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