Definitions and descriptions

Definitions and descriptions

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There are currently 21 terms in this directory beginning with the letter S.
Saprophytes
These microorganisms are nonpathogenic; their natural habitat is dead organic matter
Scabies
Scabies is an intensely pruritic and highly contagious infestation of the skin caused by mite Sarcoptes scabies.
Schistosomiasis
Parasitic disease caused by blood flukes (trematodes) of the genus Schistosoma.
Secondary defenses.
The second line of defense consists of humoral and cellular factors in the blood and tissues, the most important of which are the professional phagocytes.
Secondary Glaucoma:
This presents as a complication of other eye diseases such as uveitis, hypermature cataract, trauma and retinal diseases. It may also be due to prolonged use of steroids.
Sepsis
Systemic disease caused by microorganisms and/or their toxic products; there is often a localized focus of infection from which pathogens or toxic products enter the bloodstream continuously or in intermittent phases
Septic Arthritis
Inflammation of a synovial membrane with purulent effusion into the joint capsule, often due to bacterial infection, but can be caused by fungi and mycobacteria species. If not treated within 24 to 48hours may cause irreversible joint erosion, septicemia and can be fatal.
Septicaemic plague
Septicaemic plague occurs when infection spreads through the bloodstream, following untreated bubonic plague causing bleeding, tissue necrosis and shock.
Shedding of Deciduous/primary (milk) teeth.
Phenomenon of loosing deciduous/primary teeth occurring between ages of 5-12 years is a normal physiological change. Deciduous/primary teeth should be left to fall out themselves unless the teeth are carious or there is any other indication. Parents should be counseled accordingly and be instructed to assist their children to loosen the already mobile teeth and when there is no success or the permanent teeth are erupting in wrong direction should consult a dentist. Most carious teeth will need management by a dentist. Early loss of primary teeth may lead to crowding of permanent teeth.
Shigellosis
Shigella organisms are a group of gram-negative, facultative intracellular bacteria pathogens. They are grouped into 4 species: Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri, Shigella boydii and Shigella sonnei, also known as groups A,B,C and D respectively. Shigellosis is spread by means of fecal-oral, by ingestion contaminated food or water and leads to bacillary dysentery.
Shock
Shock is a state of acute circulatory failure leading to decreased organ perfusion, with inadequate delivery of oxygenated blood to tissues and resultant end-organ dysfunction and it is an emergency condition. Adherence to evidence-based care of the specific causes of shock can enhance a patient's chances of surviving.
Sickle cell disease
Sickle Cell Disease describes a group of inherited red blood cell disorders characterized by the presence of hemoglobin S or sickle hemoglobin. Sickle cell Anemia, is when an individual inherits two copies of hemoglobin S (homozygous state, HbSS)
Sporadic occurrence
Isolated occurrence of an infectious disease with no apparent connections between localities or times of occurrence
Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Conjunctiva
Invasive squamous cell carcinoma of conjunctiva is the major and most common ocular malignancy of the eye. The tumor typically occurs on the bulbar conjunctiva, originating at the limbus, and often spreads onto the cornea, globe, orbit and nasolacrimal system. The cancer is a slow growing tumor of middle aged to elderly people.
Squint
Eyes are looking in different directions; one eye appears to be turned in or out, in children or in adult.
Sterilization
Sterilization is the killing of all microorganisms and viruses or their complete elimination from a material with the highest possible level of certainty. An object that has been subjected to a sterilization process, then packaged so as to be contamination-proof, is considered sterile.
Stevens Johnson Syndrome (STS)
It is a rare but serious problem most often caused by reaction to medicines. It causes the skin to blister and peel off.
Stomatitis
This is generalized inflammation of the oral mucosal (including the gingival) due to different aetiologies such as infections, chemical burn, radiation and allergy.

 
Strongyloidiasis
Small intestinal infestation caused by Strongyloides stercoralis usually asymptomatic in immune competent adult but can lead to life-threatening infestation and disseminated strongyloidiasis in immune-compromissed host associated with high mortality rates
Superantigens.
These antigens stimulate T lymphocytes and macrophages to produce excessive amounts of harmful cytokines.
Superinfection
Occurrence of a second infection in the course of a first infection
Gafacom
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