DEXILANT (dexlansoprazole) delayed-release capsules

DEXILANT (dexlansoprazole) delayed-release capsules

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DEXILANT (dexlansoprazole) delayed-release capsules

The active ingredient in DEXILANT (dexlansoprazole) delayed-release capsules, a proton pump inhibitor, is (+)-2-[(R)-{[3-methyl-4-(2,2,2-trifluoroethoxy)pyridin-2-yl] methyl} sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole, a compound that inhibits gastric acid secretion. Dexlansoprazole is the R-enantiomer of lansoprazole (a racemic mixture of the R– and S-enantiomers). Its empirical formula is: C16H14F3N3O2S, with a molecular weight of 369.36.

Indications and usage

DEXILANT is a proton pump inhibitor (PPI) indicated in patients 12 years of age and older for:

  • Healing of all grades of erosive esophagitis (EE).
  • Maintenance of healed EE and relief of heartburn.
  • Treatment of symptomatic non-erosive gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Mechanism of Action

Dexlansoprazole belongs to a class of antisecretory compounds, the substituted benzimidazoles, that suppress gastric acid secretion by specific inhibition of the (H+, K+)-ATPase at the secretory surface of the gastric parietal cell. Because this enzyme is regarded as the acid (proton) pump within the parietal cell, dexlansoprazole has been characterized as a gastric proton-pump inhibitor, in that it blocks the final step of acid production.

Dosage and administration

Healing of EE: One 60 mg capsule once daily. Up to 8 weeks.

Maintenance of Healed EE and Relief of Heartburn: One 30 mg capsule once daily. Controlled studies did not extend beyond 6 months in adults and 16 weeks in patients 12 to 17 years of age.

Symptomatic Non-Erosive GERD: One 30 mg capsule once daily. 4 weeks

Dosage Adjustment in Patients with Hepatic Impairment for the Healing of Erosive Esophagitis: For patients with moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class B), the recommended dosage is 30 mg DEXILANT once daily for up to eight weeks. DEXILANT is not recommended in patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C)

Contraindications

DEXILANT is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to any component of the formulation. Hypersensitivity reactions may include anaphylaxis, anaphylactic shock, angioedema, bronchospasm, acute tubulointerstitial nephritis and urticaria.

PPIs, including DEXILANT, are contraindicated with rilpivirine-containing products.

Warnings and precautions

Presence of Gastric Malignancy: In adults, symptomatic response to therapy with DEXILANT does not preclude the presence of gastric malignancy. Consider additional follow-up and diagnostic testing in adult patients who have a suboptimal response or an early symptomatic relapse after completing treatment with a PPI. In older patients, also consider an endoscopy.

Acute Tubulointerstitial: Nephritis Acute tubulointerstitial nephritis (TIN) has been observed in patients taking PPIs and may occur at any point during PPI therapy. Patients may present with varying signs and symptoms from symptomatic hypersensitivity reactions to non-specific symptoms of decreased renal function (e.g., malaise, nausea, anorexia). In reported case series, some patients were diagnosed on biopsy and in the absence of extra-renal manifestations (e.g., fever, rash or arthralgia). Discontinue DEXILANT and evaluate patients with suspected acute TIN.

Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea: Published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy like DEXILANT may be associated with an increased risk of Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea, especially in hospitalized patients. This diagnosis should be considered for diarrhea that does not improve.

Bone Fracture: Several published observational studies suggest that PPI therapy may be associated with an increased risk for osteoporosis-related fractures of the hip, wrist or spine. The risk of fracture was increased in patients who received high-dose, defined as multiple daily doses, and long-term PPI therapy (a year or longer). Patients should use the lowest dose and shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the conditions being treated. Patients at risk for osteoporosis-related fractures should be managed according to established treatment guidelines.

Cutaneous and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: Cutaneous lupus erythematosus (CLE) and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) have been reported in patients taking PPIs. These events have occurred as both new onset and an exacerbation of existing autoimmune disease. The majority of PPI-induced lupus erythematosus cases were CLE.

The most common form of CLE reported in patients treated with PPIs was subacute CLE (SCLE) and occurred within weeks to years after continuous drug therapy in patients ranging from infants to the elderly. Generally, histological findings were observed without organ involvement.

Cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) Deficiency: Daily treatment with any acid-suppressing medications over a long period of time (e.g., longer than three years) may lead to malabsorption of cyanocobalamin (Vitamin B12) caused by hypo- or achlorhydria. Rare reports of cyanocobalamin deficiency occurring with acid-suppressing therapy have been reported in the literature. This diagnosis should be considered if clinical symptoms consistent with cyanocobalamin deficiency are observed in patients treated with DEXILANT.

Hypomagnesemia: Hypomagnesemia, symptomatic and asymptomatic, has been reported rarely in patients treated with PPIs for at least three months, in most cases after a year of therapy. Serious adverse events include tetany, arrhythmias, and seizures. In most patients, treatment of hypomagnesemia required magnesium replacement and discontinuation of the PPI.

Interactions with Investigations for Neuroendocrine Tumors: Serum chromogranin A (CgA) levels increase secondary to drug-induced decreases in gastric acidity. The increased CgA level may cause false positive results in diagnostic investigations for neuroendocrine tumors. Healthcare providers should temporarily stop dexlansoprazole treatment at least 14 days before assessing CgA levels and consider repeating the test if initial CgA levels are high. If serial tests are performed (e.g., for monitoring), the same commercial laboratory should be used for testing, as reference ranges between tests may vary

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Interaction with Methotrexate: Literature suggests that concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum levels of methotrexate and/or its metabolite, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. In highdose methotrexate administration, a temporary withdrawal of the PPI may be considered in some patients

Fundic Gland Polyps: PPI use is associated with an increased risk of fundic gland polyps that increases with long-term use, especially beyond one year. Most PPI users who developed fundic gland polyps were asymptomatic and fundic gland polyps were identified incidentally on endoscopy. Use the shortest duration of PPI therapy appropriate to the condition being treated.

Side effects

Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders: autoimmune hemolytic anemia, idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

Ear and Labyrinth Disorders: deafness

Eye Disorders: blurred vision

Gastrointestinal Disorders: oral edema, pancreatitis, fundic gland polyps

General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions: facial edema

Hepatobiliary Disorders: drug-induced hepatitis

Immune System Disorders: anaphylactic shock (requiring emergency intervention), exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, toxic epidermal necrolysis (some fatal)

Infections and Infestations: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea

Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders: hypomagnesemia, hyponatremia

Musculoskeletal System Disorders: bone fracture

Nervous System Disorders: cerebrovascular accident, transient ischemic attack

Renal and Urinary Disorders: acute renal failure

Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: pharyngeal edema, throat tightness

Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: generalized rash, leukocytoclastic vasculitis

Drug interactions

Antiretrovirals: The effect of PPIs on antiretroviral drugs is variable. The clinical importance and the mechanisms behind these interactions are not always known.

  • Decreased exposure of some antiretroviral drugs (e.g., rilpivirine, atazanavir, and nelfinavir) when used concomitantly with dexlansoprazole may reduce antiviral effect and promote the development of drug resistance.
  • Increased exposure of other antiretroviral drugs (e.g., saquinavir) when used concomitantly with dexlansoprazole may increase toxicity of the antiretroviral drugs.
  • There are other antiretroviral drugs which do not result in clinically relevant interactions with dexlansoprazole.

Warfarin: Increased INR and prothrombin time in patients receiving PPIs and warfarin concomitantly. Increases in INR and prothrombin time may lead to abnormal bleeding and even death. Monitor INR and prothrombin time. Dose adjustment of warfarin may be needed to maintain target INR range. See prescribing information for warfarin.

Methotrexate: Concomitant use of PPIs with methotrexate (primarily at high dose) may elevate and prolong serum concentrations of methotrexate and/or its metabolite hydroxymethotrexate, possibly leading to methotrexate toxicities. No formal drug interaction studies of high-dose methotrexate with PPIs have been conducted. A temporary withdrawal of DEXILANT may be considered in some patients receiving high-dose methotrexate.

Digoxin: Potential for increased exposure of digoxin. Monitor digoxin concentrations. Dose adjustment of digoxin may be needed to maintain therapeutic drug concentrations. See prescribing information for digoxin.

Use in specific populations

Pregnancy: There are no studies with dexlansoprazole use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. Dexlansoprazole is the R-enantiomer of lansoprazole, and published observational studies of lansoprazole use during pregnancy did not demonstrate an association of adverse pregnancy-related outcomes with lansoprazole

Lactation: There is no information regarding the presence of dexlansoprazole in human milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production. However, lansoprazole and its metabolites are present in rat milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for DEXILANT and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from DEXILANT or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of DEXILANT have been established in pediatric patients 12 years to 17 years of age for the healing of all grades of EE, the maintenance of healed EE and relief of heartburn, and treatment of heartburn associated with symptomatic non-erosive GERD. Use of DEXILANT in this age group is supported by evidence from adequate and well-controlled studies of DEXILANT in adults with additional safety, efficacy and pharmacokinetic data in pediatric patients 12 to 17 years of age. The adverse reaction profile in patients 12 to 17 years of age was similar to adults

Hepatic Impairment: No dosage adjustment for DEXILANT is necessary for patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class A).

Overdosage

There have been no reports of significant overdose with DEXILANT. Multiple doses of DEXILANT 120 mg and a single dose of DEXILANT 300 mg did not result in death or other severe adverse events. However, serious adverse events of hypertension have been reported in association with twice daily doses of DEXILANT 60 mg. Nonserious adverse reactions observed with twice daily doses of DEXILANT 60 mg include hot flashes, contusion, oropharyngeal pain, and weight loss. Dexlansoprazole is not expected to be removed from the circulation by hemodialysis.

In the event of over-exposure, treatment should be symptomatic and supportive.

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