First Aid: Eye injuries
Foreign objects are often blown or rubbed into the eyes. Such objects are harmful not only because of the irritating effect but also because of the danger of their scratching the surface or becoming embedded in the eye.
Signs and symptoms
• Redness of the eye.
• Burning sensation.
• Over production of tears.
• Presence of foreign body.
• Keep the victim from rubbing his eye.
• Wash your hands thoroughly before examining the victim’s eye.
• Do not attempt to remove a foreign object by inserting a match stick, tooth pick, or any other instrument.
• Refer the victim if something is embedded in the eye, or if something is thought to be embedded but cannot be located.
Removal of a foreign body from the surface of the eye ball or from the inner surface of the eyelid.
• Pull down the lower lid to determine whether or not the object lies on the inner surface.
• If the object lies on the inner surface, lift it gently with the corner of clean handkerchief or paper tissue.
• If the object has not been located, it may be lodged beneath the upper lid.
• While the victim looks down, grasp the lashes of the upper lid gently.
• Pull the upper lid foreword and down over the lower lid. Tears may dislodge the foreign object.
• If foreign object has not been dislodged, depress the victim’s upper lid with a match stick or similar object placed horizontally on the top of the cartilage and evert the lid to its place by pulling down gently.
• Flash the eye with water.
• If the object is not removed, apply a dry dressing and refer to hospital
Injury of the eyelid
• Stop hemorrhage by gently applying direct pressure.
• Clean the wound and apply a sterile or clean dressing. Seek medical help without delay.
• Bruises above and below the eye should be treated by immediate cold application to lessen bleeding and swelling
Blunt Injury of the eye
• A contusion occurs from direct blow, such as fist, a vehicle accident or explosions and results in black eye.
• In serious case, the structure of the eye may be torn or ruptured.
• Secondary damage may occur by the effect of hemorrhage and later by infection.
• Vision may be lost.
• Bleeding may occur after several days.
• The victim should be seen by a physician, preferably by eye specialist.
• A dry sterile or clean dressing should be applied and the victim should be transported lying flat.
Penetrating injuries of the eye: Such injuries of the eye are extremely serious and can result in blindness. Therefore, urgent referral must be arranged.
First aid measures
• Do not try to remove the object or to wash the eye.
• Cover both eyes loosely with a sterile or clean dressing. Secure with tape or bandage and cover both eyes to eliminate movement of the affected eye.