GAZYVA® (obinutuzumab) injection
Obinutuzumab is a humanized anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody of the IgG1 subclass. It recognizes a specific epitope of the CD20 molecule found on B cells. The molecular mass of the antibody is approximately 150 kDa.
GAZYVA (obinutuzumab) injection is produced by mammalian cell (CHO) suspension culture. GAZYVA was engineered for reduced fucose content as compared to a typical IgG1 produced in CHO cells. GAZYVA is a sterile, clear, colorless to slightly brown, preservative-free liquid concentrate for intravenous use. GAZYVA is supplied at a concentration of 25 mg/mL in 1,000 mg single-dose vials. The product is formulated in 20 mM L-histidine/L-histidine hydrochloride, 240 mM trehalose, 0.02% poloxamer 188. The pH is 6.0.
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL): GAZYVA, in combination with chlorambucil, is indicated for the treatment of patients with previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.
Follicular Lymphoma (FL): GAZYVA, in combination with bendamustine followed by GAZYVA monotherapy, is indicated for the treatment of patients with follicular lymphoma who relapsed after, or are refractory to, a rituximab containing regimen.
GAZYVA, in combination with chemotherapy followed by GAZYVA monotherapy in patients achieving at least a partial remission, is indicated for the treatment of adult patients with previously untreated stage II bulky, III or IV follicular lymphoma.
Mechanism of Action
Obinutuzumab is a monoclonal antibody that targets the CD20 antigen expressed on the surface of pre-B and mature B lymphocytes. Upon binding to CD20, obinutuzumab mediates B-cell lysis through (1) engagement of immune effector cells, (2) by directly activating intracellular death signaling pathways (direct cell death), and/or (3) activation of the complement cascade. The immune effector cell mechanisms include antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity (ADCC) and antibody-dependent cellular phagocytosis.
As an antibody with reduced fucose content, obinutuzumab induces greater ADCC activity than rituximab in vitro using human cancer cell lines. Obinutuzumab also demonstrated an increased ability to induce direct cell death when compared to rituximab. Obinutuzumab binds to FcγRIII using purified proteins with a higher affinity than rituximab. Obinutuzumab and rituximab bind with similar affinity to overlapp ing epitopes on CD20.
GAZYVA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity reactions (e.g., anaphylaxis) to obinutuzumab or to any of the excipients, or serum sickness with prior obinutuzumab use.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
Hepatitis B Virus Reactivation: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) reactivation, in some cases resulting in fulminant hepatitis, hepatic failure, and death, can occur in patients treated with anti-CD20 antibodies such as GAZYVA. HBV reactivation has been reported in patients who are hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) positive and also in patients who are HBsAg negative but are hepatitis B core antibody (anti-HBc) positive. Reactivation has also occurred in patients who appear to have resolved hepatitis B infection (i.e., HBsAg negative, anti-HBc positive, and hepatitis B surface antibody [anti-HBs] positive).
Progressive Multifocal Leukoencephalopathy: John Cunningham (JC) virus infection resulting in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), which can be fatal, occurred in patients treated with GAZYVA. Consider the diagnosis of PML in any patient presenting with new onset or changes to preexisting neurologic manifestations. Evaluation of PML includes, but is not limited to, consultation with a neurologist, brain MRI, and lumbar puncture. Discontinue GAZYVA therapy and consider discontinuation or reduction of any concomitant chemotherapy or immunosuppressive therapy in patients who develop PML.
Infusion-Related Reactions: GAZYVA can cause severe and life-threatening infusion-related reactions (IRRs). Sixty-five percent of patients with CLL experienced a reaction to the first 1,000 mg of GAZYVA infused. Thirty-seven percent of patients with relapsed or refractory NHL and 60% of patients with previously untreated NHL experienced a reaction on Day 1 of GAZYVA infusion. IRRs have occurred within 24 hours of receiving GAZYVA. IRRs can also occur with subsequent infusions. Symptoms may include hypotension, tachycardia, dyspnea, and respiratory symptoms (e.g., bronchospasm, larynx and throat irritation, wheezing, laryngeal edema). The most frequently reported symptoms include nausea, fatigue, chest discomfort, dyspnea, dizziness, vomiting, diarrhea
Hypersensitivity Reactions Including Serum Sickness: Hypersensitivity reactions have been reported in patients treated with GAZYVA. Signs of immediate-onset hypersensitivity included dyspnea, bronchospasm, hypotension, urticaria and tachycardia. Late-onset hypersensitivity diagnosed as serum sickness has also been reported, with symptoms that include chest pain, diffuse arthralgia and fever. Hypersensitivity reactions may be difficult to clinically distinguish from IRRs. However, hypersensitivity very rarely occurs with the first infusion and, when observed, often occurs after previous exposure.
If a hypersensitivity reaction is suspected during or after an infusion, stop the infusion and permanently discontinue treatment. GAZYVA is contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity reactions to GAZYVA, including serum sickness with prior GAZYVA use.
Tumor Lysis Syndrome: Tumor lysis syndrome (TLS), including fatal cases, has been reported in patients receiving GAZYVA. Patients with high tumor burden, high circulating lymphocyte count (> 25 x 109/L) or renal impairment are at greater risk for TLS.
Administer appropriate tumor lysis prophylaxis with anti-hyperuricemics (e.g., allopurinol or rasburicase) and hydration prior to the infusion of GAZYVA for patients at risk for TLS. During the initial days of GAZYVA treatment, monitor the laboratory parameters of patients considered at risk for TLS. For treatment of TLS, correct electrolyte abnormalities, monitor renal function and fluid balance, and administer supportive care, including dialysis as indicated.
Infections: Fatal and serious bacterial, fungal, and new or reactivated viral infections can occur during and following GAZYVA therapy.
Do not administer GAZYVA to patients with an active infection. Patients with a history of recurring or chronic infections may be at increased risk of infection.
Neutropenia: Severe and life-threatening neutropenia, including febrile neutropenia, has been reported during treatment with GAZYVA. Monitor patients with Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia frequently with regular laboratory tests until resolution. Anticipate, evaluate, and treat any symptoms or signs of developing infection. Consider dose delays for Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia. Consider administration of granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (GCSF) in patients with Grade 3 or 4 neutropenia.
Neutropenia can also be of late onset (occurring more than 28 days after completion of treatment) and/or prolonged (lasting longer than 28 days). Patients with severe and long lasting (> 1 week) neutropenia are strongly recommended to receive antimicrobial prophylaxis until resolution of neutropenia to Grade 1 or 2. Consider antiviral and antifungal prophylaxis.
Thrombocytopenia: Severe and life-threatening thrombocytopenia has been reported during treatment with GAZYVA in combination with chemotherapy. Fatal hemorrhagic events have been reported in patients with NHL and CLL treated with GAZYVA in combination with chemotherapy, including during Cycle 1.
Monitor all patients frequently for thrombocytopenia and hemorrhagic events, especially during the first cycle and if clinically indicated, evaluate laboratory coagulation parameters [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. In patients with Grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia, monitor platelet counts more frequently until resolution and consider dose delays of GAZYVA and chemotherapy or dose reductions of chemotherapy. Transfusion of blood products (i.e., platelet transfusion) may be necessary. Consider withholding concomitant medications that may increase bleeding risk (platelet inhibitors, anticoagulants), especially during the first cycle.
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC): Fatal and severe DIC has been reported in patients receiving GAZYVA for treatment of follicular lymphoma and chronic lymphocytic leukemia. The majority of DIC cases have involved changes in platelets and laboratory coagulation parameters following the first infusion, with spontaneous resolution usually occurring by Day 8. In some cases, DIC was associated with IRRs, TLS, or both. In patients with suspected DIC, evaluate potential causes, and monitor coagulation parameters, platelet counts, and for signs and symptoms of bleeding or thrombosis. Manage according to standard guidelines for DIC. Supportive care, including transfusion of blood products and other medical management, may be necessary.
Immunization: The safety and efficacy of immunization with live or attenuated viral vaccines during or following GAZYVA therapy have not been studied. Immunization with live virus vaccines is not recommended during treatment and until B-cell recovery.
Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on its mechanism of action and findings in animals, GAZYVA can cause B-cell depletion in infants exposed to obinutuzumab in-utero. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception while receiving GAZYVA and for 6 months after the last dose.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy: Based on findings from animal studies and its mechanism of action, GAZYVA can cause fetal B-cell depletion. There are no data with GAZYVA use in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk. Monoclonal antibodies are transferred across the placenta. In animal reproduction studies, weekly intravenous administration of obinutuzumab to pregnant cynomolgus monkeys from day 20 of pregnancy until parturition which includes the period of organogenesis at doses with exposures up to 2.4 times the exposure at the clinical dose of 1,000 mg monthly produced opportunistic infections and immune complex mediated hypersensitivity reactions. No embryo-toxic or teratogenic effects were observed in the monkeys. Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to the fetus.
Lactation: There is no information regarding the presence of GAZYVA in human milk, the effects on the breastfed child, or the effects on milk production. However, low levels of obinutuzumab were present in the milk of lactating cynomolgus monkeys. Human IgG is known to be present in human milk. Because of the potential of serious adverse reactions in the breastfed child, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with GAZYVA and for 6 months after the last dose.
Females and Males of Reproductive Potential: GAZYVA can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman.
Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment with GAZYVA and for 6 months after the last dose.
Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of GAZYVA in pediatric patients have not been established.
There has been no experience with overdose in human clinical trials. For patients who experience overdose, treatment should consist of immediate interruption or reduction of GAZYVA and supportive therapy.
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