IBUPROFEN Tablets, USP

IBUPROFEN Tablets, USP

IBUPROFEN Tablets, USP

Ibuprofen tablets contain the active ingredient ibuprofen, which is (±)-2-(p-isobutylphenyl) propionic acid. Ibuprofen is a white powder with a melting point of 74-77° C and is very slightly soluble in water (<1 mg/mL) and readily soluble in organic solvents such as ethanol and acetone.

Ibuprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), is available in 400 mg, 600 mg and 800 mg tablets for oral administration. Inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, croscarmellose sodium, hypromellose 2910, hydroxypropyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol 400, pregelatinized starch, povidone k-90, sodium lauryl sulphate, titanium dioxide.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Ibuprofen tablets contain ibuprofen which possesses analgesic and antipyretic activities. Its mode of action, like that of other NSAIDs, is not completely understood, but may be related to prostaglandin synthetase inhibition.

INDICATIONS & USAGE

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of ibuprofen tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use ibuprofen. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals.

  • Ibuprofen tablets are indicated for relief of the signs and symptoms of rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis.
  • Ibuprofen tablets are indicated for relief of mild to moderate pain.
  • Ibuprofen tablets are also indicated for the treatment of primary dysmenorrhea.

Controlled clinical trials to establish the safety and effectiveness of ibuprofen tablets in children have not been conducted.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

  • Ibuprofen tablets are contraindicated in patients with known hypersensitivity to ibuprofen.
  • Ibuprofen tablets should not be given to patients who have experienced asthma, urticarial, or allergic-type reactions after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs. Severe, rarely fatal, anaphylactic-like reactions to NSAIDs have been reported in such patients
  • Ibuprofen tablets are contraindicated in the setting of coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery

WARNINGS

Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events: Clinical trials of several COX-2 selective and nonselective NSAIDs of up to three years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular (CV) thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction (MI) and stroke, which can be fatal. Based on available data, it is unclear that the risk for CV thrombotic events is similar for all NSAIDs. The relative increase in serious CV thrombotic events over baseline conferred by NSAID use appears to be similar in those with and without known CV disease or risk factors for CV disease. However, patients with known CV disease or risk factors had a higher absolute incidence of excess serious CV thrombotic events, due to their increased baseline rate. Some observational studies found that this increased risk of serious CV thrombotic events began as early as the first weeks of treatment. The increase in CV thrombotic risk has been observed most consistently at higher doses.

To minimize the potential risk for an adverse CV event in NSAID-treated patients, use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration possible. Physicians and patients should remain alert for the development of such events, throughout the entire treatment course, even in the absence of previous CV symptoms. Patients should be informed about the symptoms of serious CV events and the steps to take if they occur.

Heart Failure and Edema: The Coxib and traditional NSAID Trialists’ Collaboration meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials demonstrated an approximately two-fold increase in hospitalizations for heart failure in COX-2 selective-treated patients and nonselective NSAID-treated patients compared to placebo-treated patients. In a Danish National Registry study of patients with heart failure, NSAID use increased the risk of MI, hospitalization for heart failure, and death.

Avoid the use of Ibuprofen Tablets in patients with severe heart failure unless the benefits are expected to outweigh the risk of worsening heart failure. If Ibuprofen Tablets is used in patients with severe heart failure, monitor patients for signs of worsening heart failure.

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Gastrointestinal Effects – Risk of Ulceration, Bleeding and Perforation: NSAIDs, including ibuprofen tablets, can cause serious gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events including inflammation, bleeding, ulceration, and perforation of the stomach, small intestine or large intestine, which can be fatal. These serious adverse events can occur at any time, with or without warning symptoms, in patients treated with NSAIDs. Only one in five patients, who develop a serious upper GI adverse event on NSAID therapy, is symptomatic. Upper GI ulcers, gross bleeding, or perforation caused by NSAIDs occur in approximately 1% of patients treated for 3-6 months, and in about 2-4% of patients treated for one year. These trends continue with longer duration of use, increasing the likelihood of developing a serious GI event at some time during the course of therapy. However, even short-term therapy is not without risk. NSAIDs should be prescribed with extreme caution in those with a prior history of ulcer disease or gastrointestinal bleeding.

Renal Effects: Long-term administration of NSAIDs has resulted in renal papillary necrosis and other renal injury. Renal toxicity has also been seen in patients in whom renal prostaglandins have a compensatory role in the maintenance of renal perfusion. In these patients, administration of an NSAID may cause a dose-dependent reduction in prostaglandin formation and, secondarily, in renal blood flow, which may precipitate overt renal decompensation. Patients at greatest risk of this reaction are those with impaired renal function, heart failure, liver dysfunction, those taking diuretics and ACE inhibitors, and the elderly. Discontinuation of NSAID therapy is usually followed by recovery to the pretreatment state.

Advanced Renal Disease: No information is available from controlled clinical studies regarding the use of ibuprofen tablets in patients with advanced renal disease. Therefore, treatment with ibuprofen tablets is not recommended in these patients with advanced renal disease. If ibuprofen tablet therapy must be initiated, close monitoring of the patient’s renal function is advisable.

Anaphylactoid Reactions: As with other NSAIDs, anaphylactoid reactions may occur in patients without known prior exposure to ibuprofen tablets. Ibuprofen tablets should not be given to patients with the aspirin triad. This symptom complex typically occurs in asthmatic patients who experience rhinitis with or without nasal polyps, or who exhibit severe, potentially fatal bronchospasm after taking aspirin or other NSAIDs

Skin Reactions: NSAIDs, including ibuprofen tablets, can cause serious skin adverse events such as exfoliative dermatitis, Stevens – Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. These serious events may occur without warning. Patients should be informed about the signs and symptoms of serious skin manifestations and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.

Pregnancy: In late pregnancy, as with other NSAIDs, ibuprofen tablets should be avoided because it may cause premature closure of the ductus arteriosus.

PRECAUTIONS

Ibuprofen tablets cannot be expected to substitute for corticosteroids or to treat corticosteroid insufficiency. Abrupt discontinuation of corticosteroids may lead to disease exacerbation. Patients on prolonged corticosteroid therapy should have their therapy tapered slowly if a decision is made to discontinue corticosteroids.

The pharmacological activity of ibuprofen tablets in reducing fever and inflammation may diminish the utility of these diagnostic signs in detecting complications of presumed noninfectious, painful conditions.

Hepatic effects: Borderline elevations of one or more liver tests may occur in up to 15% of patients taking NSAIDs, including ibuprofen tablets. These laboratory abnormalities may progress, may remain unchanged, or maybe transient with continuing therapy. Notable elevations of ALT or AST (approximately three or more times the upper limit of normal) have been reported in approximately 1% of patients in clinical trials with NSAIDs. In addition, rare cases of severe hepatic reactions, including jaundice, fulminant hepatitis, liver necrosis, and hepatic failure, some of them with fatal outcomes have been reported.

Hematological effects: Anemia is sometimes seen in patients receiving NSAIDs, including ibuprofen tablets. This may be due to fluid retention, occult or gross GI blood loss, or an incompletely described effect upon erythropoiesis. Patients on long-term treatment with NSAIDs, including ibuprofen tablets, should have their hemoglobin or hematocrit checked if they exhibit any signs or symptoms of anemia.

Preexisting asthma: Patients with asthma may have aspirin-sensitive asthma. The use of aspirin in patients with aspirin-sensitive asthma has been associated with severe bronchospasm, which can be fatal. Since cross reactivity, including bronchospasm, between aspirin and NSAIDs has been reported in such aspirin-sensitive patients, ibuprofen tablets should not be administered to patients with this form of aspirin sensitivity and should be used with caution in patients with preexisting asthma.

Ophthalmological effects: Blurred and/or diminished vision, scotomata, and/or changes in color vision have been reported. If a patient develops such complaints while receiving ibuprofen tablets, the drug should be discontinued, and the patient should have an ophthalmologic examination which includes central visual fields and color vision testing.

Aseptic Meningitis: Aseptic meningitis with fever and coma has been observed on rare occasions in patients on ibuprofen therapy. Although it is probably more likely to occur in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus and related connective tissue diseases, it has been reported in patients who do not have an underlying chronic disease. If signs or symptoms of meningitis develop in a patient on ibuprofen tablets, the possibility of its being related to ibuprofen tablets should be considered.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

ACE-inhibitors: Reports suggest that NSAIDs may diminish the antihypertensive effect of ACE-inhibitors. This interaction should be given consideration in patients taking NSAIDs concomitantly with ACE-inhibitors.

Aspirin: When ibuprofen tablets are administered with aspirin, its protein binding is reduced, although the clearance of free ibuprofen tablets is not altered. The clinical significance of this interaction is not known; however, as with other NSAIDs, concomitant administration of ibuprofen and aspirin is not generally recommended because of the potential for increased adverse effects.

Diuretics: Clinical studies, as well as post marketing observations, have shown that ibuprofen tablets can reduce the natriuretic effect-of furosemide and thiazides in some patients. This response has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis. During concomitant therapy with NSAIDs, the patient should be observed closely for signs of renal failure, as well as to assure diuretic efficacy.

Lithium: Ibuprofen produced an elevation of plasma lithium levels and a reduction in renal lithium clearance in a study of eleven normal volunteers. The mean minimum lithium concentration increased 15% and the renal clearance of lithium was decreased by 19% during this period of concomitant drug administration. This effect has been attributed to inhibition of renal prostaglandin synthesis by ibuprofen. Thus, when ibuprofen and lithium are administered concurrently, subjects should be observed carefully for signs of lithium toxicity. (Read circulars for lithium preparation before use of such concurrent therapy.)

Methotrexate: NSAIDs have been reported to competitively inhibit methotrexate accumulation in rabbit kidney slices. This may indicate that they could enhance the toxicity of methotrexate. Caution should be used when NSAIDs are administered concomitantly with methotrexate.

Warfarin-type anticoagulants: Several short-term controlled studies failed to show that ibuprofen tablets significantly affected prothrombin times or a variety of other clotting factors when administered to individuals on coumarin-type anticoagulants. However, because bleeding has been reported when ibuprofen tablets and other NSAIDs have been administered to patients on coumarin-type anticoagulants, the physician should be cautious when administering ibuprofen tablets to patients on anticoagulants. The effects of warfarin and NSAIDs on GI bleeding are synergistic, such that the users of both drugs together have a risk of serious GI bleeding higher than users of either drug alone.

H-2 Antagonists: In studies with human volunteers, co-administration of cimetidine or ranitidine with ibuprofen had no substantive effect on ibuprofen serum concentrations.

PREGNANCY

Teratogenic effects – Pregnancy Category C: Reproductive studies conducted in rats and rabbits have not demonstrated evidence of developmental abnormalities. However, animal reproduction studies are not always predictive of human response. There are no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Ibuprofen should be used in pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Nonteratogenic effects: Because of the known effects of NSAIDs on the fetal cardiovascular system (closure of ductus arteriosus), use during late pregnancy should be avoided.

LABOR & DELIVERY

In rat studies with NSAIDs, as with other drugs known to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, an increased incidence of dystocia, delayed parturition, and decreased pup survival occurred. The effects of ibuprofen tablets on labor and delivery in pregnant women are unknown.

NURSING MOTHERS

It is not known whether this drug is excreted in human milk. Because many drugs are excreted in human-milk and because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in nursing infants from ibuprofen tablets, a decision should be made whether to discontinue nursing or discontinue the drug, taking into account the importance of the drug to the mother.

PEDIATRIC USE

Safety and effectiveness of ibuprofen tablets in pediatric patients have not been established.

GERIATRIC USE

As with any NSAIDs, caution should be exercised in treating the elderly (65 years and older).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

The most frequent type of adverse reaction occurring with ibuprofen tablets is gastrointestinal. In controlled clinical trials the percentage of patients reporting one or more gastrointestinal complaints ranged from 4% to 16%.

OVERDOSAGE

Approximately 1½ hours after the reported ingestion of from 7 to10 ibuprofen tablets (400 mg), a 19-month-old child weighing 12 kg was seen in the hospital emergency room, apneic and cyanotic, responding only to painful stimuli. This type of stimulus, however, was sufficient to induce respiration. Oxygen and parenteral fluids were given; a greenish-yellow fluid was aspirated from the stomach with no evidence to indicate the presence of ibuprofen. Two hours after ingestion the child’s condition seemed stable; she still responded only to painful stimuli and continued to have periods of apnea lasting from 5 to 10 seconds. She was admitted to intensive care and sodium bicarbonate was administered as well as infusions of dextrose and normal saline. By four hours post-ingestion she could be aroused easily, sit by herself and respond to spoken commands. Blood level of ibuprofen was 102.9 mcg/mL approximately 8½ hours after accidental ingestion. At 12 hours she appeared to be completely recovered.

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In two other reported cases where children (each weighing approximately 10 kg) accidentally, acutely ingested approximately 120 mg/kg, there were no signs of acute intoxication or late sequelae. Blood level in one child 90 minutes after ingestion was 700 mcg/mL about 10 times the peak levels seen in absorption-excretion studies.

A 19-year-old male who had taken 8,000 mg of ibuprofen over a period of a few hours complained of dizziness, and nystagmus was noted. After hospitalization, parenteral hydration and three days bed rest, he recovered with no reported sequelae.

In cases of acute overdosage, the stomach should be emptied by vomiting or lavage, though little drug will likely be recovered if more than an hour has elapsed since ingestion. Because the drug is acidic and is excreted in the urine, it is theoretically beneficial to administer alkali and induce diuresis. In addition to supportive measures, the use of oral activated charcoal may help to reduce the absorption and reabsorption of ibuprofen tablets.

DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION

Carefully consider the potential benefits and risks of ibuprofen tablets and other treatment options before deciding to use ibuprofen tablets. Use the lowest effective dose for the shortest duration consistent with individual patient treatment goals

After observing the response to initial therapy with ibuprofen tablets, the dose and frequency should be adjusted to suit an individual patient’s needs.

Do not exceed 3200 mg total daily dose. If gastrointestinal complaints occur, administer ibuprofen tablets with meals or milk.

Rheumatoid arthritis and osteoarthritis, including flare-ups of chronic disease:

Suggested Dosage: 1200 mg to 3200 mg daily (300 mg four times a day; 400 mg, 600 mg or 800 mg three times a day or four times a day). Individual patients may show a better response to 3200 mg daily, as compared with 2400 mg, although in well-controlled clinical trials patients on 3200 mg did not show a better mean response in terms of efficacy. Therefore, when treating patients with 3200 mg/day, the physician should observe sufficient increased clinical benefits to offset potential increased risk.

The dose should be tailored to each patient, and may be lowered or raised depending on the severity of symptoms either at time of initiating drug therapy or as the patient responds or fails to respond.

In general, patients with rheumatoid arthritis seem to require higher doses of ibuprofen tablets than do patients with osteoarthritis.

The smallest dose of ibuprofen tablets that yields acceptable control should be employed. A linear blood level dose-response relationship exists with single doses up to 800 mg

In chronic conditions, a therapeutic response to therapy with ibuprofen tablets is sometimes seen in a few days to a week but most often is observed by two weeks. After a satisfactory response has been achieved, the patient’s dose should be reviewed and adjusted as required.

Mild to moderate pain:  400 mg every 4 to 6 hours as necessary for relief of pain.In controlled analgesic clinical trials, doses of ibuprofen tablets greater than 400 mg were no more effective than the 400 mg dose.

Dysmenorrhea: For the treatment of dysmenorrhea, beginning with the earliest onset of such pain, ibuprofen tablets should be given in a dose of 400 mg every 4 hours as necessary for the relief of pain.

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