Imatinib is a small molecule kinase inhibitor. Imatinib mesylate film-coated tablets contain imatinib mesylate equivalent to 100 mg or 400 mg of imatinib free base. Imatinib mesylate is designated chemically as 4-[(4-Methyl-1-piperazinyl)methyl]-N-[4-methyl-3-[[4-(3-pyridinyl)-2-pyrimidinyl]amino]-phenyl]benzamide methanesulfonate
Imatinib mesylate is a white to off-white crystalline powder. Its molecular formula is C29H31N7O • CH4SO3 and its molecular weight is 589.7. Imatinib mesylate is freely soluble in water and freely to sparingly soluble in methanol.
Inactive Ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide (NF); crospovidone (NF); and magnesium stearate (NF). Tablet coating: hypromellose (USP); hydroxypropyl cellulose, red ferric oxide (NF); yellow ferric oxide (NF); and polyethylene glycol (NF).
INDICATIONS AND USAGE
Imatinib mesylate is a kinase inhibitor indicated for the treatment of:
- Newly Diagnosed Philadelphia Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia (Ph+ CML)
Newly diagnosed adult and pediatric patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia in chronic phase.
- Ph+ CML in Blast Crisis (BC), Accelerated Phase (AP) or Chronic Phase (CP) After Interferon-alpha (IFN) Therapy
Patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia in blast crisis, accelerated phase, or in chronic phase after failure of interferon-alpha therapy.
- Adult patients with Ph+ Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL)
Adult patients with relapsed or refractory Philadelphia chromosome positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia.
- Myelodysplastic/Myeloproliferative Diseases (MDS/MPD)
Adult patients with myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative diseases associated with PDGFR (platelet-derived growth factor receptor) gene re-arrangements as determined with an FDA-approved test
- Aggressive Systemic Mastocytosis (ASM)
Adult patients with aggressive systemic mastocytosis without the D816V c-Kit mutation as determined with an FDA-approved test or with c-Kit mutational status unknown.
- Hypereosinophilic Syndrome (HES) and/or Chronic Eosinophilic Leukemia (CEL)
Adult patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome and/or chronic eosinophilic leukemia who have the FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion kinase (mutational analysis or FISH demonstration of CHIC2 allele deletion) and for patients with HES and/or CEL who are FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion kinase negative or unknown.
- Dermatofibrosarcoma Protuberans (DFSP)
Adult patients with unresectable, recurrent and/or metastatic dermatofibrosarcoma protuberans.
Mechanism of Action
Imatinib mesylate is a protein-tyrosine kinase inhibitor that inhibits the BCR-ABL tyrosine kinase, the constitutive abnormal tyrosine kinase created by the Philadelphia chromosome abnormality in CML. Imatinib inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in BCR-ABL positive cell lines as well as fresh leukemic cells from Philadelphia chromosome positive chronic myeloid leukemia. Imatinib inhibits colony formation in assays using ex vivo peripheral blood and bone marrow samples from CML patients.
In vivo, imatinib inhibits tumor growth of BCR-ABL transfected murine myeloid cells as well as BCR-ABL positive leukemia lines derived from CML patients in blast crisis.
Imatinib is also an inhibitor of the receptor tyrosine kinases for platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) and stem cell factor (SCF), c-kit, and inhibits PDGF- and SCF-mediated cellular events.
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
All doses of imatinib mesylate tablets should be taken with a meal and a large glass of water. Doses of 400 mg or 600 mg (imatinib as free base) should be administered once daily, whereas a dose of 800 mg (imatinib as free base) should be administered as 400 mg (imatinib as free base) twice a day. Imatinib mesylate tablets can be dissolved in water or apple juice for patients having difficulty swallowing. Daily dosing of 800 mg (imatinib as free base) and above should be accomplished using the 400 mg tablet (imatinib as free base) to reduce exposure to iron.
The prescribed dose should be administered orally, with a meal and a large glass of water. Doses of 400 mg or 600 mg (imatinib as free base) should be administered once daily, whereas a dose of 800 mg (imatinib as free base) should be administered as 400 mg (imatinib as free base) twice a day.
For patients unable to swallow the film-coated tablets, the tablets may be dispersed in a glass of water or apple juice. The required number of tablets should be placed in the appropriate volume of beverage (approximately 50 mL for a 100 mg tablet, and 200 mL for a 400 mg tablet) and stirred with a spoon. The suspension should be administered immediately after complete disintegration of the tablet(s).
For daily dosing of 800 mg (imatinib as free base) and above, dosing should be accomplished using the 400 mg (imatinib as free base) tablet to reduce exposure to iron.
Treatment may be continued as long as there is no evidence of progressive disease or unacceptable toxicity.
- Adult Patients with Ph+ CML CP, AP, or BC
The recommended dose of imatinib mesylate tablets is 400 mg/day (imatinib as free base) for adult patients in chronic phase CML and 600 mg/day (imatinib as free base) for adult patients in accelerated phase or blast crisis.
In CML, a dose increase from 400 mg to 600 mg (imatinib as free base) in adult patients with chronic phase disease, or from 600 mg to 800 mg (imatinib as free base) (given as 400 mg twice daily) in adult patients in accelerated phase or blast crisis may be considered in the absence of severe adverse drug reaction and severe non-leukemia related neutropenia or thrombocytopenia in the following circumstances: disease progression (at any time), failure to achieve a satisfactory hematologic response after at least 3 months of treatment, failure to achieve a cytogenetic response after 6 to 12 months of treatment, or loss of a previously achieved hematologic or cytogenetic response.
- Pediatric Patients with Ph+ CML CP
The recommended dose of imatinib mesylate tablets for children with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML is 340 mg/m2/day (imatinib as free base) (not to exceed 600 mg). Imatinib mesylate tablets treatment can be given as a once daily dose or the daily dose may be split into two – one portion dosed in the morning and one portion in the evening. There is no experience with imatinib mesylate treatment in children under 1 year of age.
- Adult Patients with Ph+ ALL
The recommended dose of imatinib mesylate tablets is 600 mg/day (imatinib as free base) for adult patients with relapsed/refractory Ph+ ALL.
- Adult Patients with MDS/MPD
Determine PDGFRb gene rearrangements status prior to initiating treatment. Information on FDA-approved tests for the detection of PDGFRb rearrangements is available at http://www.fda.gov/companiondiagnostics.
The recommended dose of imatinib mesylate tablets is 400 mg/day (imatinib as free base) for adult patients with MDS/MPD.
- Adult Patients with ASM
Determine D816V c-Kit mutation status prior to initiating treatment. Information on FDA-approved test for the detection of D816V c-Kit mutation is available at http://www.fda.gov/companiondiagnostics.
The recommended dose of imatinib mesylate tablets is 400 mg/day (imatinib as free base) for adult patients with ASM without the D816V c-Kit mutation. If c-Kit mutational status is not known or unavailable, treatment with imatinib mesylate tablets 400 mg/day (imatinib as free base) may be considered for patients with ASM not responding satisfactorily to other therapies. For patients with ASM associated with eosinophilia, a clonal hematological disease related to the fusion kinase FIP1L1-PDGFRα, a starting dose of 100 mg/day (imatinib as free base) is recommended. Dose increase from 100 mg to 400 mg (imatinib as free base) for these patients may be considered in the absence of adverse drug reactions if assessments demonstrate an insufficient response to therapy.
- Adult Patients with HES/CEL
The recommended dose of imatinib mesylate tablets is 400 mg/day (imatinib as free base) for adult patients with HES/CEL. For HES/CEL patients with demonstrated FIP1L1-PDGFRα fusion kinase, a starting dose of 100 mg/day (imatinib as free base) is recommended. Dose increase from 100 mg to 400 mg (imatinib as free base) for these patients may be considered in the absence of adverse drug reactions if assessments demonstrate an insufficient response to therapy.
- Adult Patients with DFSP
The recommended dose of imatinib mesylate tablets is 800 mg/day (imatinib as free base) for adult patients with DFSP.
WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
- Fluid Retention and Edema: Imatinib mesylate is often associated with edema and occasionally serious fluid retention.
Weigh and monitor patients regularly for signs and symptoms of fluid retention. Investigate unexpected rapid weight gain carefully and provide appropriate treatment. The probability of edema was increased with higher imatinib mesylate dose and age greater than 65 years in the CML studies.
- Hematologic Toxicity
Treatment with imatinib mesylate tablets is associated with anemia, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Perform complete blood counts weekly for the first month, biweekly for the second month, and periodically thereafter as clinically indicated (for example, every 2 to 3 months). In CML, the occurrence of these cytopenias is dependent on the stage of disease and is more frequent in patients with accelerated phase CML or blast crisis than in patients with chronic phase CML. In pediatric CML patients the most frequent toxicities observed were Grade 3 or 4 cytopenias including neutropenia, thrombocytopenia and anemia. These generally occur within the first several months of therapy
- Congestive Heart Failure and Left Ventricular Dysfunction
Congestive heart failure and left ventricular dysfunction have been reported in patients taking imatinib mesylate. Cardiac adverse reactions were more frequent in patients with advanced age or co-morbidities including previous medical history of cardiac disease. In an international randomized phase 3 study in 1,106 patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase, severe cardiac failure and left ventricular dysfunction were observed in 0.7% of patients taking imatinib mesylate compared to 0.9% of patients taking IFN + Ara-C. In another randomized trial with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML patients in chronic phase that compared imatinib mesylate and nilotinib, cardiac failure was observed in 1.1% of patient in the imatinib mesylate arm and 2.2% of patients in the nilotinib 300 mg bid arm and severe (Grade 3 or 4) cardiac failure occurred in 0.7% of patients in each group. Carefully monitor patients with cardiac disease or risk factors for cardiac or history of renal failure. Evaluate and treat any patient with signs or symptoms consistent with cardiac or renal failure.
Hepatotoxicity, occasionally severe, may occur with imatinib mesylate. Cases of fatal liver failure and severe liver injury requiring liver transplants have been reported with both short-term and long-term use of imatinib mesylate. Monitor liver function (transaminases, bilirubin, and alkaline phosphatase) before initiation of treatment and monthly, or as clinically indicated. Manage laboratory abnormalities with imatinib mesylate interruption and/or dose reduction.
When imatinib mesylate is combined with chemotherapy, liver toxicity in the form of transaminase elevation and hyperbilirubinemia has been observed. Additionally, there have been reports of acute liver failure. Monitoring of hepatic function is recommended.
In a trial of imatinib mesylate versus IFN+Ara-C in patients with the newly diagnosed CML, 1.8% of patients had Grade 3/4 hemorrhage. In a randomized trial in patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ CML in chronic phase comparing imatinib mesylate and nilotinib, GI hemorrhage occurred in 1.4% of patients in the imatinib mesylate arm, and in 2.9% of patients in the nilotinib 300 mg bid arm. None of these events were Grade 3 or 4 in the imatinib mesylate arm; 0.7% were Grade 3 or 4 in the nilotinib 300 mg bid arm. In addition, gastric antral vascular ectasia has been reported in postmarketing experience.
- Gastrointestinal Disorders
Imatinib mesylate is sometimes associated with GI irritation. Imatinib mesylate tablets should be taken with food and a large glass of water to minimize this problem. There have been rare reports, including fatalities, of gastrointestinal perforation.
- Hypereosinophilic Cardiac Toxicity
In patients with hypereosinophilic syndrome with occult infiltration of HES cells within the myocardium, cases of cardiogenic shock/left ventricular dysfunction have been associated with HES cell degranulation upon the initiation of imatinib mesylate therapy. The condition was reported to be reversible with the administration of systemic steroids, circulatory support measures and temporarily withholding imatinib mesylate.
Myelodysplastic/myeloproliferative disease and systemic mastocytosis may be associated with high eosinophil levels. Consider performing an echocardiogram and determining serum troponin in patients with HES/CEL, and in patients with MDS/MPD or ASM associated with high eosinophil levels. If either is abnormal, consider prophylactic use of systemic steroids (1 to 2 mg/kg) for one to two weeks concomitantly with imatinib mesylate at the initiation of therapy.
- Dermatologic Toxicities
Bullous dermatologic reactions, including erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome, have been reported with use of imatinib mesylate. In some cases of bullous dermatologic reactions, including erythema multiforme and Stevens-Johnson syndrome reported during postmarketing surveillance, a recurrent dermatologic reaction was observed upon rechallenge. Several foreign postmarketing reports have described cases in which patients tolerated the reintroduction of imatinib mesylate therapy after resolution or improvement of the bullous reaction. In these instances, imatinib mesylate was resumed at a dose lower than that at which the reaction occurred and some patients also received concomitant treatment with corticosteroids or antihistamines.
Clinical cases of hypothyroidism have been reported in thyroidectomy patients undergoing levothyroxine replacement during treatment with imatinib mesylate tablets. Monitor TSH levels in such patients.
- Embryo-fetal Toxicity
Imatinib mesylate can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Imatinib mesylate was teratogenic in rats when administered during organogenesis at doses approximately equal to the maximum human dose of 800 mg/day based on body surface area. Significant post-implantation loss was seen in female rats administered imatinib mesylate at doses approximately one-half the maximum human dose of 800 mg/day based on body surface area. Advise sexually active female patients of reproductive potential to use effective contraception (methods that result in less than 1% pregnancy rates) when using imatinib mesylate tablets and for 14 days after stopping imatinib mesylate tablets. If this drug is used during pregnancy or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, apprise the patient of the potential hazard to a fetus.
- Growth Retardation in Children and Adolescents
Growth retardation has been reported in children and pre-adolescents receiving imatinib mesylate tablets. The long-term effects of prolonged treatment with imatinib mesylate on growth in children are unknown. Therefore, monitor growth in children under imatinib mesylate treatment.
- Tumor Lysis Syndrome
Cases of Tumor Lysis Syndrome (TLS), including fatal cases, have been reported in patients with CML, ALL and eosinophilic leukemia receiving imatinib mesylate tablets. The patients at risk of TLS are those with tumors having a high proliferative rate or high tumor burden prior to treatment. Monitor these patients closely and take appropriate precautions. Due to possible occurrence of TLS, correct clinically significant dehydration and treat high uric acid levels prior to initiation of imatinib mesylate.
- Impairments Related to Driving and Using Machinery
Motor vehicle accidents have been reported in patients receiving imatinib mesylate tablets. Advise patients that they may experience side effects such as dizziness, blurred vision or somnolence during treatment with imatinib mesylate. Recommend caution when driving a car or operating machinery.
Infections: hepatitis B virus reactivation
Nervous System Disorders: cerebral edema
Eye Disorders: vitreous hemorrhage
Cardiac Disorders: pericarditis, cardiac tamponade
Vascular Disorders: thrombosis/embolism, anaphylactic shock
Respiratory, Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders: acute respiratory failure, interstitial lung disease
Gastrointestinal Disorders: ileus/intestinal obstruction, tumor hemorrhage/tumor necrosis, gastrointestinal perforation, diverticulitis, gastric antral vascular ectasia
Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders: lichenoid keratosis, lichen planus, toxic epidermal necrolysis, palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia syndrome, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS)
Musculoskeletal and Connective Tissue Disorders: avascular necrosis/hip osteonecrosis, rhabdomyolysis/myopathy, growth retardation in children
Reproduction Disorders: hemorrhagic corpus luteum/hemorrhagic ovarian cyst
Agents Inducing CYP3A Metabolism: Concomitant administration of imatinib mesylate tablets and strong CYP3A4 inducers may reduce total exposure of imatinib; consider alternative agents.
Agents Inhibiting CYP3A Metabolism: Concomitant administration of imatinib mesylate tablets and strong CYP3A4 inhibitors may result in a significant imatinib exposure increase. Grapefruit juice may also increase plasma concentrations of imatinib; avoid grapefruit juice
Interactions with Drugs Metabolized by CYP3A4: Imatinib mesylate will increase plasma concentration of CYP3A4 metabolized drugs (e.g., triazolo-benzodiazepines, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, certain HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors, etc.). Use caution when administering imatinib mesylate tablets with CYP3A4 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic window.
Because warfarin is metabolized by CYP2C9 and CYP3A4, use low-molecular weight or standard heparin instead of warfarin in patients who require anticoagulation
Interactions with Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6: Use caution when administering imatinib mesylate with CYP2D6 substrates that have a narrow therapeutic window.
USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Pregnancy: Imatinib mesylate tablets can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman based on human and animal data. There are no clinical studies regarding use of imatinib mesylate tablets in pregnant women. There have been post-market reports of spontaneous abortions and congenital anomalies from women who have been exposed to imatinib mesylate tablets during pregnancy. Reproductive studies in rats have demonstrated that imatinib mesylate induced teratogenicity and increased. Advise women to avoid pregnancy when taking imatinib mesylate tablets. If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, apprise the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus.
Lactation: Imatinib and its active metabolite are excreted into human milk. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from imatinib mesylate, advise a lactating woman not to breastfeed during treatment and for 1 month after the last dose.
Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of imatinib mesylate tablets have been demonstrated in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed Ph+ chronic phase CML. There are no data in children under 1 year of age.
Geriatric Use: In the CML clinical studies, approximately 20% of patients were older than 65 years. In the study of patients with newly diagnosed CML, 6% of patients were older than 65 years. The frequency of edema was higher in patients older than 65 years as compared to younger patients; no other difference in the safety profile was observed. The efficacy of imatinib mesylate was similar in older and younger patients.
Hepatic Impairment: The effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of both imatinib and its major metabolite, CGP74588, was assessed in 84 patients with cancer with varying degrees of hepatic impairment at imatinib doses ranging from 100 mg to 800 mg.
Mild and moderate hepatic impairment do not influence exposure to imatinib and CGP74588. In patients with severe hepatic impairment, the imatinib Cmax and AUC increased by 63% and 45% and the CGP74588 CMax and AUC increased by 56% and 55%, relative to patients with normal hepatic function. Reduce the dose by 25% for patients with severe hepatic
Renal Impairment: The effect of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of imatinib was assessed in 59 patients with cancer and varying degrees of renal impairment at single and steady state imatinib doses ranging from 100 to 800 mg/day. The mean exposure to imatinib (dose normalized AUC) in patients with mild and moderate renal impairment increased 1.5- to 2-fold compared to patients with normal renal function. There are not sufficient data in patients with severe renal impairment. Dose reductions are necessary for patients with moderate and severe renal impairment
Experience with doses greater than 800 mg is limited. Isolated cases of imatinib mesylate overdose have been reported. In the event of overdosage, observe the patient and give appropriate supportive treatment.
1,200 to 1,600 mg (duration varying between 1 to 10 days): Nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, rash erythema, edema, swelling, fatigue, muscle spasms, thrombocytopenia, pancytopenia, abdominal pain, headache, decreased appetite.
1,800 to 3,200 mg (as high as 3,200 mg daily for 6 days): Weakness, myalgia, increased CPK, increased bilirubin, gastrointestinal pain.
6,400 mg (single dose): One case in the literature reported one patient who experienced nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, pyrexia, facial swelling, neutrophil count decreased, increase transaminases.
8 to 10 g (single dose): Vomiting and gastrointestinal pain have been reported.
A patient with myeloid blast crisis experienced Grade 1 elevations of serum creatinine, Grade 2 ascites and elevated liver transaminase levels, and Grade 3 elevations of bilirubin after inadvertently taking 1,200 mg of imatinib mesylate (imatinib as free base) daily for 6 days. Therapy was temporarily interrupted and complete reversal of all abnormalities occurred within 1 week. Treatment was resumed at a dose of 400 mg daily (imatinib as free base) without recurrence of adverse reactions. Another patient developed severe muscle cramps after taking 1,600 mg of imatinib mesylate (imatinib as free base) daily for 6 days. Complete resolution of muscle cramps occurred following interruption of therapy and treatment was subsequently resumed. Another patient that was prescribed 400 mg daily (imatinib as free base), took 800 mg of imatinib mesylate (imatinib as free base) on Day 1 and 1,200 mg (imatinib as free base) on Day 2. Therapy was interrupted, no adverse reactions occurred and the patient resumed therapy.
One 3-year-old male exposed to a single dose of 400 mg experienced vomiting, diarrhea and anorexia and another 3-year-old male exposed to a single dose of 980 mg experienced decreased white blood cell count and diarrhea.