Laboratory is a place that is equipped with different instruments, equipments and chemicals (reagents) etc., for performing experimental works, research activities and investigative procedures.
Medical laboratory is one part of the laboratory that is equipped with various biomedical instruments, equipments, materials and reagents (chemicals) for performing different laboratory investigative activities by using biological specimens (whole blood, serum, plasma, urine, stool, etc).
Basic laboratory level I
Basic laboratory level I is the simplest kind and adequate for work with organisms which have low risk to the individual laboratory personnel as well as to the members of the community. Such organisms are categorized under Risk Group I by WHO. These organisms are unlikely to cause human diseases. Example, food spoilage bacteria, common molds and yeasts.
Basic laboratory level II
Basic laboratory level II is suitable for work with organisms that predispose to moderate risk to the laboratory worker and a limited risk to the members of the community. Such organisms are categorized under Risk Group II by WHO. They can cause serious human diseases but not serious hazards due to the availability of effective preventive measures and treatment. Example, staphylococci, streptococci, entero bacteria except
Containment laboratory (Level III)
Containment laboratory is more advanced and it is used for work with infectious organisms that present a high risk to the laboratory personnel but a lower risk to the community. Such organisms are categorized under Risk Group III by WHO. Example, Tubercle bacilli, Salmonella typhi, HIV, Yersina and others.
The principle is to remove from the basic laboratory those organisms and activities which are particularly hazardous. They are easily transmitted through airborne, ingestion of contaminated food or water and paranterally. Such laboratory should be a separate room with controlled access by authorized staff. It should also be fitted with microbial safety cabinet.
Maximum containment laboratory
Maximum containment laboratory is intended for work with viruses, which predispose to a high risk for both laboratory personnel and the community. Such organisms are categorized under Risk Group IV by WHO. Example, Small pox, Ebola, Lassa fever and others. Most of these organisms cause serious disease and readily transmitted from one person