KISQALI® (ribociclib) tablets

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KISQALI® (ribociclib) tablets

KISQALI (ribociclib) is a kinase inhibitor.

The chemical name of ribociclib succinate is: Butanedioic acid—7-cyclopentyl-N,N-dimethyl-2-{[5-(piperazin-1-yl) pyridin-2-yl]amino}-7H-pyrrolo[2,3-d]pyrimidine-6-carboxamide (1/1).

Ribociclib succinate is a light yellow to yellowish brown crystalline powder. The molecular formula for ribociclib succinate is C23H30N8O·C4H6O4 and the molecular weight is 552.64 g/mol (Free base: 434.55 g/mol).

KISQALI film-coated tablets are supplied for oral use and contain 200 mg of ribociclib free base (equivalent to 254.40 mg ribociclib succinate). The tablets also contain colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, hydroxypropylcellulose, magnesium stearate and microcrystalline cellulose. The film-coating contains iron oxide black, iron oxide red, lecithin (soya), polyvinyl alcohol (partially hydrolysed), talc, titanium dioxide, and xanthan gum as inactive ingredients.

Indications and usage

KISQALI is a kinase inhibitor indicated in combination with:

  • an aromatase inhibitor for the treatment of pre/perimenopausal or postmenopausal women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive, human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer, as initial endocrine-based therapy; or
  • fulvestrant for the treatment of postmenopausal women with HR-positive, HER2-negative advanced or metastatic breast cancer, as initial endocrine-based therapy or following disease progression on endocrine therapy

Mechanism of Action

Ribociclib is an inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4 and 6. These kinases are activated upon binding to D-cyclins and play a crucial role in signaling pathways which lead to cell cycle progression and cellular proliferation. The cyclin DCDK4/6 complex regulates cell cycle progression through phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein (pRb).

In vitro, ribociclib decreased pRb phosphorylation leading to arrest in the G1 phase of the cell cycle and reduced cell proliferation in breast cancer cell lines. In vivo, treatment with single agent ribociclib in a rat xenograft model with human tumor cells led to decreased tumor volumes, which correlated with inhibition of pRb phosphorylation. In studies using patient-derived estrogen receptor positive breast cancer xenograft models, combination of ribociclib and antiestrogen (e.g., letrozole) resulted in increased tumor growth inhibition compared to each drug alone. Additionally, the combination of ribociclib and fulvestrant resulted in tumor growth inhibition in an estrogen receptor positive breast cancer xenograft model.

Dosage and administration

The recommended dose of KISQALI is 600 mg (three 200 mg film-coated tablets) taken orally, once daily for 21 consecutive days followed by 7 days off treatment resulting in a complete cycle of 28 days. KISQALI can be taken with or without food.

When given with KISQALI, refer to the Full Prescribing Information for the recommended dose of the aromatase inhibitor being used.

When given with KISQALI, the recommended dose of fulvestrant is 500 mg administered on Days 1, 15, 29, and once monthly thereafter. Please refer to the Full Prescribing Information of fulvestrant.

Pre/perimenopausal women treated with the combination KISQALI plus an aromatase inhibitor or fulvestrant should be treated with a luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) agonist according to current clinical practice standards.

Patients should take their dose of KISQALI at approximately the same time each day, preferably in the morning.

If the patient vomits after taking the dose, or misses a dose, no additional dose should be taken that day. The next prescribed dose should be taken at the usual time. KISQALI tablets should be swallowed whole (tablets should not be chewed, crushed or split prior to swallowing). No tablet should be ingested if it is broken, cracked, or otherwise not intact.

Contraindications

None

Warnings and precautions

Interstitial Lung Disease/Pneumonitis: Severe, life-threatening, or fatal interstitial lung disease (ILD) and/or pneumonitis can occur in patients treated with KISQALI and other CDK4/6 inhibitors. Monitor patients for pulmonary symptoms indicative of ILD/pneumonitis which may include hypoxia, cough, and dyspnea. In patients who have new or worsening respiratory symptoms suspected to be due to ILD or pneumonitis, interrupt KISQALI immediately and evaluate the patient. Permanently discontinue KISQALI in patients with recurrent symptomatic or severe ILD/pneumonitis

Severe Cutaneous Adverse Reactions: Severe cutaneous adverse reactions (SCARs), including Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), and drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome (DiHS)/drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) can occur in patients treated with KISQALI.

If signs or symptoms of severe cutaneous reactions occur, interrupt KISQALI until the etiology of the reaction has been determined. Early consultation with a dermatologist is recommended to ensure greater diagnostic accuracy and appropriate management.

QT Interval Prolongation: KISQALI has been shown to prolong the QT interval in a concentration-dependent manner. Based on the observed QT prolongation during treatment, KISQALI may require dose interruption, reduction or discontinuation.

Assess ECG prior to initiation of treatment. Initiate treatment with KISQALI only in patients with QTcF values less than 450 ms. Repeat ECG at approximately Day 14 of the first cycle and the beginning of the second cycle, and as clinically indicated.

Monitor serum electrolytes (including potassium, calcium, phosphorous and magnesium) prior to the initiation of treatment, at the beginning of the first 6 cycles, and as clinically indicated. Correct any abnormality before starting KISQALI therapy

Increased QT Prolongation With Concomitant Use of Tamoxifen: KISQALI is not indicated for concomitant use with tamoxifen. In MONALEESA-7, the observed mean QTcF increase from baseline was > 10 ms higher in the tamoxifen plus placebo subgroup compared with the non-steroidal aromatase inhibitors (NSAIs) plus placebo subgroup. In the placebo arm, an increase of > 60 ms from baseline occurred in 6/90 (7%) of patients receiving tamoxifen, and in no patients receiving an NSAI. An increase of > 60 ms from baseline in the QTcF interval was observed in 14/87 (16%) of patients in the KISQALI and tamoxifen combination and in 18/245 (7%) of patients receiving KISQALI plus an NSAI

Hepatobiliary Toxicity: Perform liver function tests (LFTs) before initiating therapy with KISQALI. Monitor LFTs every 2 weeks for first 2 cycles, at the beginning of each subsequent 4 cycles, and as clinically indicated

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Based on the severity of the transaminase elevations, KISQALI may require dose interruption, reduction, or discontinuation. Recommendationsfor patients who have elevated AST/ALT Grade ≥ 3 at baseline have not been established.

Neutropenia: Perform complete blood count (CBC) before initiating therapy with KISQALI. Monitor CBC every 2 weeks for the first 2 cycles, at the beginning of each subsequent 4 cycles, and as clinically indicated.

Embryo-Fetal Toxicity: Based on findings from animal studies and the mechanism of action, KISQALI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. In animal reproduction studies, administration of ribociclib to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis caused embryo-fetal toxicities at maternal exposures that were 0.6 and 1.5 times the human clinical exposure, respectively, based on area under the curve (AUC). Advise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus. Advise women of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during therapy with KISQALI and for at least 3 weeks after the last dose.

Adverse reactions

Most common adverse reactions (incidence ≥ 20%) are neutropenia, nausea, infections, fatigue, diarrhea, leukopenia, vomiting, alopecia, headache, constipation, rash, and cough.

Drug interactions

CYP3A4 Inhibitors: Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (ritonavir) increased ribociclib exposure in healthy subjects by 3.2-fold. Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A inhibitors (e.g., boceprevir, clarithromycin, conivaptan, grapefruit juice, indinavir, itraconazole, ketoconazole, lopinavir/ritonavir, nefazodone, nelfinavir, posaconazole, ritonavir, saquinavir, and voriconazole) and consider alternative concomitant medications with less potential for CYP3A inhibition.

If coadministration of KISQALI with a strong CYP3A inhibitor cannot be avoided, reduce the dose of KISQALI to 400 mg once daily

CYP3A4 Inducers: Coadministration of a strong CYP3A4 inducer (rifampin) decreased the plasma exposure of ribociclib in healthy subjects by 89%. Avoid concomitant use of strong CYP3A inducers and consider an alternate concomitant medication with no or minimal potential to induce CYP3A (e.g., phenytoin, rifampin, carbamazepine, and St John’s wort (Hypericum perforatum)).

CYP3A Substrates with Narrow Therapeutic Index: Coadministration of midazolam (a sensitive CYP3A4 substrate) with multiple doses of KISQALI (400 mg) increased the midazolam exposure by 3.8-fold in healthy subjects, compared with administration of midazolam alone. KISQALI given at the clinically relevant dose of 600 mg is predicted to increase the midazolam AUC by 5.2-fold. Therefore, caution is recommended when KISQALI is administered with CYP3A substrates with a narrow therapeutic index. The dose of a sensitive CYP3A substrate with a narrow therapeutic index, including but not limited to alfentanil, cyclosporine, dihydroergotamine, ergotamine, everolimus, fentanyl, pimozide, quinidine, sirolimus and tacrolimus, may need to be reduced as ribociclib can increase their exposure.

Drugs That Prolong the QT Interval: Avoid coadministration of KISQALI with medicinal products with a known potential to prolong QT, such as antiarrhythmic medicines (including, but not limited to amiodarone, disopyramide, procainamide, quinidine, and sotalol), and other drugs that are known to prolong the QT interval (including, but not limited to, chloroquine, halofantrine, clarithromycin, haloperidol, methadone, moxifloxacin, bepridil, pimozide, and ondansetron)

Use in specific population

Pregnancy: Based on findings from animal studies and the mechanism of action, KISQALI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman

Lactation: It is not known if ribociclib is present in human milk. There are no data on the effects of ribociclib on the breastfed infant or on milk production. Ribociclib and its metabolites readily passed into the milk of lactating rats. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions in breastfed infants from KISQALI, advise lactating women not to breastfeed while taking KISQALI and for at least 3 weeks after the last dose.

Pregnancy Testing: Based on animal studies, KISQALI can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman. Females of reproductive potential should have a pregnancy test prior to starting treatment with KISQALI.

Pediatric Use: The safety and efficacy of KISQALI in pediatric patients has not been established.

Geriatric Use: Of 334 patients who received KISQALI in MONALEESA-2, 150 patients (45%) were ≥ 65 years of age and 35 patients (11%) were ≥ 75 years of age. Of 484 patients who received KISQALI in MONALEESA-3, 226 patients (47%) were ≥ 65 years of age and 65 patients (14%) were ≥ 75 years of age. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness of KISQALI were observed between these patients and younger patients.

Hepatic Impairment: No dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class A). A reduced starting dose of 400 mg is recommended in patients with moderate (Child-Pugh class B) and severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh class C). Based on a pharmacokinetic trial in patients with hepatic impairment, mild hepatic impairment had no effect on the exposure of ribociclib. The mean exposure for ribociclib was increased less than 2-fold in patients with moderate (geometric mean ratio [GMR]: 1.44 for Cmax; 1.28 for AUCinf ) and severe (GMR: 1.32 for Cmax ; 1.29 for AUCinf) hepatic impairment.

Renal Impairment: Based on a population pharmacokinetic analysis, no dose adjustment is necessary in patients with mild (60 mL/min/1.73 m2 ≤ estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) < 90 mL/min/1.73 m2) or moderate (30 mL/min/1.73 m2 ≤ eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2) renal impairment. Based on a renal impairment study in healthy subjects and non-cancer subjects with severe renal impairment (eGFR 15 to < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2), a starting dose of 200 mg is recommended. KISQALI has not been studied in breast cancer patients with severe renal impairment

Overdosage

There is limited experience with reported cases of overdose with KISQALI in humans. General symptomatic and supportive measures should be initiated in all cases of overdose where necessary.

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