Lorhistina® tablets: white, circular biconvex tablet embossed ‘COSMOS’ on one side and a breaking on the other side. Each tablet contains : Loratadine 10mg, Lactulose and other excipients
Lorhistina® syrup 5mg/5ml: Straw yellow coloured syrup slightly viscous free from visible evidence of contamination with raspberry odour. Each 5ml contains Loratadine 5mg
Loratadine, a piperidine derivative related to azatadine, is a long-acting non-sedating antihistamine with no significant antimuscarinic activity.
Loratadine is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration, peak plasma concentrations being attained in about one hour. Bioavailability is increased and time to peak plasma concentrations is delayed when administered wit food.
Loratadine undergoes extensive metabolism. The major metabolite, descarboethoxyloratadine (desloratadine), has potent antihistaminic activity. Reported mean elimination half-lives for loratdine and descarboethoxyloratadine are 8.4 and 28 hours respectively.
Loratadine is about 98% bound to plasma proteins; descarboethoxyloratadine is less extensively bound. Loratadine and its metabolites have been detected in the breast milk, but do not appear to cross the blood-brain barrier to a significant extent. Most of a dose is excreted equally in the urine and faeces, mainly in the form of metabolites.
Lorhistina® is a histamine H1– receptor antagonist that does not generally cause sedation or antimuscarinic effect. It is given for symptomatic relief of allergic conditions including rhinitis and chronic urticaria.
Dosage and administration
Adults including the elderly and children 12 years of age and over: 10mg or two 5ml spoonfuls once daily.
Children aged 6 to 12 years: 5mg or one 5ml spoonful of syrup once daily
Contraindications and warnings
Drowsiness can occur and it may affect the performance of skilled tasks. Occasionally reports of convulsions in patients taking antihistamines also call for caution in patients with epilepsy. Caution is also needed in hepatic impairment. Antihistamines should not be given to neonates owing to the increased susceptibility to antimuscarinic effects.
Occasional gastrointestinal adverse effects of antihistamines include nausea, vomiting, diarrhoea, or epigastric pain. Administration of anti-histamines may sometimes cause rashes and hypersensitivity reaction and cross-sensitivity.
Other adverse effects with antihistamines include convulsions, sweating, myalgia, paraethesias, extrapyramidal effects, tremor, sleep disturbances, depression, tinnitus, hypotension and hair loss.
Sedative interactions apply to non-sedating anti-histamines: they do not appear to potentiate the effects of alcohol, but it should be avoided in excess. Antihistamines may suppress the cutaneous histamine response to allergen extracts and should be stopped several days before skin testing.