Lung capacity, mechanics and stimulation of breathing
The Respiratory System is crucial to every human being. Without it, we would cease to live outside of the womb. Let us begin by taking a look at the structure of the respiratory system and how vital it is to life. During inhalation or exhalation air is pulled towards or away from the lungs, by several cavities, tubes, and openings.
The organs of the respiratory system make sure that oxygen enters our bodies and carbon dioxide leaves our bodies. The respiratory tract is the path of air from the nose to the lungs. It is divided into two sections: Upper Respiratory Tract and the Lower Respiratory Tract.
Included in the upper respiratory tract are the Nostrils, Nasal Cavities, Pharynx, Epiglottis, and the Larynx.
The lower respiratory tract consists of the Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles, and the Lungs. As air moves along the respiratory tract it is warmed, moistened and filtered.
Functions of the respiratory system
1. BREATHING or ventilation
2. EXTERNAL RESPIRATION, which is the exchange of gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) between inhaled air and the blood.
3. INTERNAL RESPIRATION, which is the exchange of gases between the blood and tissue fluids.
4. CELLULAR RESPIRATION In addition to these main processes, the respiratory system serves for:
• REGULATION OF BLOOD pH, which occurs in coordination with the kidneys, and as a
• DEFENSE AGAINST MICROBES
• Control of body temperature due to loss of evaporate during expiration
Breathing and Lung Mechanics
Ventilation is the exchange of air between the external environment and the alveoli. Air moves by bulk flow from an area of high pressure to low pressure. All pressures in the respiratory system are relative to atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg at sea level). Air will move in or out of the lungs depending on the pressure in the alveoli. The body changes the pressure in the alveoli by changing the volume of the lungs.
As volume increases pressure decreases and as volume decreases pressure increases. There are two phases of ventilation; inspiration and expiration. During each phase the body changes the lung dimensions to produce a flow of air either in or out of the lungs.
The body is able to change the dimensions of the lungs because of the relationship of the lungs to the thoracic wall. Each lung is completely enclosed in a sac called the pleural sac. Two structures contribute to the formation of this sac. The parietal pleura is attached to the thoracic wall whereas the visceral pleura is attached to the lung itself.
In-between these two membranes is a thin layer of intrapleural fluid. The intrapleural fluid completely surrounds the lungs and lubricates the two surfaces so that they can slide across each other. Changing the pressure of this fluid also allows the lungs and the thoracic wall to move together during normal breathing. Much the way two glass slides with water in-between them are difficult to pull apart, such is the relationship of the lungs to the thoracic wall.
The rhythm of ventilation is also controlled by the “Respiratory Center” which is located largely in the medulla oblongata of the brain stem. This is part of the autonomic system and as such is not controlled voluntarily (one can increase or decrease breathing rate voluntarily, but that involves a different part of the brain).
While resting, the respiratory center sends out action potentials that travel along the phrenic nerves into the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles of the rib cage, causing inhalation. Relaxed exhalation occurs between impulses when the muscles relax. Normal adults have a breathing rate of 12-20 respirations per minute.
Lung Capacity and Stimulation of Breathing
The normal volume moved in or out of the lungs during quiet breathing is called tidal volume.
When we are in a relaxed state, only a small amount of air is brought in and out, about 500 mL.
You can increase both the amount you inhale, and the amount you exhale, by breathing deeply.
Breathing in very deeply is Inspiratory Reserve Volume and can increase lung volume to 3400 mL, which is quite a bit more than the tidal volume of 500 mL. We can also increase expiration by contracting our thoracic and abdominal muscles.
This is called expiratory reserve volume and is about 1200 ml of air. Vital capacity is the total of tidal, inspiratory reserve and expiratory reserve volumes; it is called vital capacity because it is vital for life, and the more air you can move, the better off you are.
Vital Capacity can vary a little depending on how much we can increase inspiration by expanding our chest and lungs. Some air that we breathe never even reaches the lungs! Instead it fills our nasal cavities, trachea, bronchi, and bronchioles. These passages aren’t used in gas exchange so they are considered to be dead air space.
To make sure that the inhaled air gets to the lungs, we need to breathe slowly and deeply. Even when we exhale deeply some air is still in the lungs,(about 1200 ml) and is called residual volume. This air isn’t useful for gas exchange. There are certain types of diseases of the lung where residual volume builds up because the person cannot fully empty the lungs. This means that the vital capacity is also reduced because their lungs are filled with useless air.
Stimulation of Breathing
There are two pathways of motor neuron stimulation of the respiratory muscles. The first is the control of voluntary breathing by the cerebral cortex. The second is involuntary breathing controlled by the medulla oblongata.
There are chemoreceptors in the aorta, the carotid body of carotid arteries, and in the medulla oblongata of the brainstem that are sensitive to pH. As carbon dioxide levels increase there is a buildup of carbonic acid, which releases hydrogen ions and lowers pH.
Thus, the chemoreceptors do not respond to changes in oxygen levels (which actually change much more slowly), but to pH, which is dependent upon plasma carbon dioxide levels. In other words, CO2 is the driving force for breathing. The receptors in the aorta and the carotid sinus initiate a reflex that immediately stimulates breathing rate and the receptors in the medulla stimulate a sustained increase in breathing until blood pH returns to normal.
This response can be experienced by running a 100 meter dash. During this exertion (or any other sustained exercise) your muscle cells must metabolize ATP at a much faster rate than usual, and thus will produce much higher quantities of CO2. The blood pH drops as CO2 levels increase, and you will involuntarily increase breathing rate very soon after beginning the sprint.
You will continue to breathe heavily after the race, thus expelling more carbon dioxide, until pH has returned to normal. Metabolic acidosis therefore is acutely corrected by respiratory compensation (hyperventilation).