Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander) is a member of the Apiaceae family (previously Umbelliferae) and known as cilantro, cilantrillo, Arab parsley, Chinese parsley, Mexican parsley, Dhania, and Yuen sai. It is an annual herb commonly used in Middle Eastern, Mediterranean, Indian, Latin American, African, and Southeast Asian cuisine. Although cilantro and coriander seem to describe the same thing, it actually carries different meanings. When the plant is freshly harvested, the green leaves of the plant is called cilantro; if the dried fruits are used, the herb is called as coriander
Coriander essential oil was reported to contain a number of compounds
Monoterpene Hydrocarbons: p-cymene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, limonene (dipentene), myrcene, cis- and trans-ocimene, α-phellandrene, β-phellandrene, α-pinene, β-pinene, sabinene, α-terpinene, γ-terpinene, terpinolene, α-thujene.
Monoterpene oxides and Carbonyls: Camphor, 1,8-cineole, linalol oxide, carvone, geranial.
Monoterpene Alcohols: Borneol, citronellol, geraniol, linalool, nerol, α-terpineol, 4-terpinenol.
Monoterpene Esters: Bornyl acetate, geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, α-terpinyl acetate.
Sesquiterpenes: β-Caryophyllene, caryophellene oxide, elemol, nerolidol.
Phenols: Anethole, myristicin, thymol.
Miscellaneous compounds: Acetic acid, α-pdimethyl styrene.
Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: Heptadecane, octadecane.
Aliphatic Alcohols: Decanol, dodecanol.
Aliphatic Aldehydes: Octanal, nonanal, decanal, undecanal, dodecanal, tridecanal, tetradecanal, 3- octenal, 2-decenal, 5-decenal, 8-methyl-2-nonenal, 8-methyl-5-nonenal, 6-undecenal, 2-dodecenal, 7-dodecenal, 2-tridecenal, 8- tridecenal, 9-tetradecenal, 10-pentadecenal, 3,6-undecadienal, 5,8-tridecadienal.
Ant diabetic activity
C. sativum showed significant hypoglycaemic action in rats fed with high cholesterol diet. The activity of glycogen phosphorylase and gluconeogenic enzymes revealed a decrease in the rate of glycogenolysis and glucogenesis. There was also an increased activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and glycolytic enzymes used glucose by the pentose phosphate pathway and glycolysis respectively.
In an in-vitro study to assess the possible effects of aqueous coriander plant extract (50 g plant extract/L) on glucose diffusion across the gastrointestinal tract, it was found that the extract significantly decreased glucose diffusion compared to control with mean external glucose concentration of 6.4 ± 0.2 mmol/L at 26 h. Part of the antihyperglycemic action of C. sativum may be due to decreased glucose absorption in vivo. Pre-treatment with C. sativum protected Wistar albino rats against gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol. The protective effect might be related to the free-radical scavenging property of the different antioxidant constituent present in C. sativum. Other studies also shows that C. sativum has antidiabetic activity.
The aqueous extract of coriander seed possesses diuretic and saluretic activity, thus, validating the use of coriander as a diuretic plant in Moroccan pharmacopoeia aqueous extract of coriander seed was administered by continuous intravenous infusion (120 min) at two doses (40 and 100 mg/kg) to anesthetized Wistar rats. Furosemide (10 mg/kg), a standard diuretic was used as the reference drug.
Excretion of water and electrolytes (sodium, potassium and chloride) in urine was measured, and glomerular filtration rate (equal to creatinine clearance) was determined. The crude aqueous extract of coriander seeds increased diuresis, excretion of electrolytes, and glomerular filtration rate in a dose-dependent way; furosemide was more potent as a diuretic and saluretic. The mechanism of action of the plant extract appears to be similar to that of furosemide (Aissaoui Abderahim et al., 2008).
The antioxidant activity of the studied essential oils and their mixtures was assessed in the aldehyde/carboxylic acid test. This method is based on inhibition of autoxidation of aldehyde to carboxylic (hexanoic) acid in the presence of compounds exhibiting antioxidant activity. This method combined with capillary GLC makes it possible to study antioxidant properties and to determine quantitative changes in the content of each component of essential oils during their autoxidation.
This method is also carried out by DPPH radical-scavenging assay, Inhibition of 15-LO, Inhibition of phospholipid peroxidation. Extracts from both leaves and seeds showed a concentration-dependent DPPH scavenging activity respectively (Misharina T. A et al., 2008; Wangensteen Helle et al., 2004).
The aqueous crude extracts of C. sativum stimulated the proliferation of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and the secretion of IFN-y at concentration between 50 and 200 μg/ml. Further studies on several bioactive compounds known to be of the extract, shown that flavonoids quercetin stimulated the proliferation of human PBMC and the secretion of IFN-y. However, the flavonoid rutin, coumarins bergapten and xanthotoxin modulate the secretion of IFN-y but did not enhance the proliferation of human PBMC while the coumarin isopimpinellin, promoted the proliferation of PBMC but did not modulate the secretion of IFN-y.
The aqueous extract of coriander fruits has an anxiolytic activity and may possess sedative and muscle relaxant effects dose-dependently in mice. Its utility in clinical applications may be similar to that of diazepam. The effect of coriander at a dose of 100 mg/kg in mice was found almost equivalent to that of 0.3 mg/kg diazepam on the plus-maze test. According to the studies on animal and on human, 7.5 g dry extract of coriander fruit may be suggested as effective dose for a 75 kg adult man. This corresponds to an infusion of approximately 20 g of coriander fruit in 100 mL water, considering the yield of the extract in the range of the coriander doses, tentatively used in traditional medicine. However, the effect of the extract in a clinical application was not determined to reach the optimum therapeutic dose for a human.
For example, the aqueous extract of coriander fruits (200, 400, and 600 mg/kg per day), alcohol extracts (400 and 600 mg/kg per day), and essential oil (600 mg/kg per day) increased pentobarbital- induced sleeping time. In a mouse study, coriander fruits (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg) was compared with diazepam (0.5 mg/kg) in animal models of anxiety. Coriander fruits were almost recorded equivalent to diazepam as an anxiolytic at the two higher doses
The hydro-methanolic extract of coriander fruits has been found cardioprotective potential. This effect should be attributable to its high polyphenol content in the fruits likewise. The preventive effect of coriander on cardiac damage has been investigated by isoproterenol induced cardiotoxicity model in male Wistar rats and found that the methanolic extract of the fruits prevent myocardial infarction by inhibiting myofibrillar damage on rats. The coriander fruits caused a significant decrease in all cholesterol-associated lipids, while the extract reduced high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol; the extract also improved the cardioprotective indices. Coriander fruits also reduced dyslipidemia in rabbits. All blood-fat values improved significantly with the coriander diet. It means that the extracts have beneficial profits on cardioprotective effect
The anthelmintic activities (in vitro) of crude aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of the fruits of Coriandrum sativum were investigated on the egg and adult nematode parasite called as Haemonchus contortus and the aqueous extract of coriander for in vivo anthelmintic activity in sheep infected with Haemonchus contortus. Both extract types inhibited completely leaving eggs at a concentration less than 0.5 mg/mL. ED50 of aqueous extract was found 0.12 mg/mL while that of the hydroalcoholic extract was 0.18 mg/mL. Moreover, all essential oil dosages showed a significant level of toxicity to the Sitophilus granarius (an insect) after 5 days in chickpea grains
Aqueous infusions and aqueous decoctions of Coriandrum sativum (coriander) against 186 bacterial isolates belonging to 10 different genera of G +ve bacterial population and 2 isolates of Candida albicans isolated from urine specimens. The well diffusion technique was employed. The aqueous infusion and decoction of coriander did not show any antimicrobial activity against G –ve urinary pathogens as well as against Candida albicans (Sabahat saeed perween tariq et al., 2007).
Coriander is a potential herb to protect the body against absorption of heavy metals and other dietary toxins. Moreover, the herb can be able to prevent the formation of gastric ulcers and Helicobacter pylori. In a study, the antigastric ulcer and antisecretory activity of coriander have been confirmed and concluded that the effect might be linked to the antioxidant property of different constituents present in Coriander, involved in scavenging of the reactive oxygen species on the surface of gastric mucosa, or might also form a protective layer by hydrophobic interactions. That is why, it protects the cells from gastric injury. In a recent work, the animal study showed that coriander fruits (250 mg/kg and 500 per os) protected the animals against the ulcerogenic effects of salt, sodium hydroxide, ethanol, indomethacin, and pylorus ligation dose-dependently
The long chain fatty acids are potentially beneficial in antiaging products for local use, helping to restore barrier properties of the epidermis and prevent moisture loss. Therefore, the long chain fatty acids can be considered as potential antiaging agents. Coriander fruit oil is very rich in these types of the fatty acids. The studies done as a topical treatment for a variety of skin conditions with coriander-fruit oil and as a component of herbal sunscreens seem very impressive
The oil may contain ceramides of petroselinic acid as well. The extract also functions as an anti-irritant and helps to maintain skin texture and tone. A specially prepared extract from coriander fruits such as Umbelliferin® (INCI: Coriandrum sativum (coriander) extract is a trademarked product containing petroselinic acid triglycerides obtained as a nonlauric fraction from coriander fruit oil) helps in supporting skin barrier functions. Preparations using coriander/oil as single form or in combination with the other plants can be developed in the future and may become famous as one of the secrets of staying young for a long time.
The biochemical effect of coriander fruits on lipid parameters in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer has been studied in rats. The concentrations of cholesterol and cholesterol to phospholipid ratio declined while the level of phospholipid increased significantly in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine control group compared to the coriander administered group. Fecal dry weight, fecal neutral sterols, and bile acids showed a sharp increase in the coriander-fed group compared with the DMH-administered group. Thus, it seems that the coriander plays a protective role in the lipid metabolism of colon cancer. Although there are not many studies on the anticancer effect of coriander, there are some studies based on antioxidant effect.