Terminalia arjuna is a tree belonging to the family Combretaceae. It is commonly known as arjuna. It is about 20 – 25 m tall usually has a buttressed trunk and forms a wide canopy at the crown, from which branches droop downwards. It has oblong conical leaves which are green on the upper surface and brown below the surface. It has smooth grey bark and pale yellow flowers which appear between March–June; it is glabrous; 2.5 to 5 cm fibrous woody fruit divided into five wings, appears between September–November. Arjuna is usually found growing on river banks or near dry river beds in west Bengal, south and central India.
The bark, leaves and fruits of T. arjuna have been used in indigenous system of medicine for different ailments. The bark is said to be sweet, acrid, cooling and heating, aphrodisiac, expectorant, tonic, styptic, antidysenteric, purgative and laxative. Its use has been advocated in urinary discharge, strangury, leucoderma, anaemia, hyperhidrosis, asthma and tumours. The use of bark powder as an astringent and diuretic finds mention in the literature. The bark powder has been attributed to possess cardioprotective properties
Smokers Health and Terminalia arjuna
Smoking is a major cardiovascular risk factor and is associated with impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation, a key early event in atherogenesis. The cause of endothelial dysfunction in smokers is not known, but it has been attributed to increased oxidative stress that may reduce the bioavailability of endothelium-derived nitric oxide (No), leading to impairment in vasodilatory function.
Terminalia arjuna therapy for two weeks leads to significant regression of endothelial abnormality amongst smokers. In a double blind cross-over study, flow-mediated dilation was significantly impaired amongst smokers compared to control. Treatment with Terminalia arjuna (500 mg q8h) showed significant improvement in flow mediated dilation from baseline values compared to placebo.
Antimicrobial activity (Mann et al 2008 ) scientifically analysis reported that water extract of Terminalia Arjuna barks shows maximum amount of antimicrobial antimicrobial activities against Proteus Vulgaris, Klebsiella aerogenes, Eschrichia coli and Pseudomonas aerogenis. The presence of antibacterial activity in the bark of Terminalia Arjuna exhibiting selectively maximum activity against S. epidermidis (Biotechnol., 1996).
In Ayurveda, bark powder is used as cardio protective and it is known as a tonic to heartdiseases. Its ksheerpaka is highly effective to normalize high blood pressure and in many ruralareas.Cardiomyopathy like myocardial in fraction, Angina, coronary artery dis eases, heart failure, hypercholesterolemia, and hyper tension arecured by arjuna bark powder.
Used as an ischemic and cardio protective agent in hypertension and ischemic heart diseases. Arjuna improves pumping capacity of heart by strengthening muscles and vascular system and also be useful in treating excess of cholesterol in blood (Gupta et al.). The anticoagulant and antiplatelet aggregation action of arjuna keeps the blood thin and lowers the bad cholesterol while increasing the good cholesterol.
In high blood pressure it helps to regulate disturbed rhythms and regulate the heart beat rate. Arjuna reduces the effect of stress and nervousness on the heart. It pro vides significant cardiac protection in heart attack. Al though many ayurvedic plants have shown to help coronary artery dis eases, Arjuna by far seems to be the best plant for heart health.
Bark of arjuna contain gallic acid, ethyl galate and flavone luteolin. Luteolin has well established record of inhibiting various cancer cell lines. Casuarinin, a hydrolysable tannin isolated from the bark of T. arjuna inhibits human non-small cell cancer A549 cell by blocking cell cycle progression in the G0/G1 phase and inducing apoptosis (Kuo et al.). Aqueous extract of T.arjuna play a role in the anti-carcinogenic activity by reducing the oxidative stress along with inhibition of anaerobic metabolism (Verma and Vinayak)
Antifungal activity: Terminalia species found five contain of organic extracts like (T.arjuna, T. chebula, T. bellerica, T. catappa and T. alata) were tested with plant pathogenic fungi i.e. A. flavus, A. alternata, A. niger, A. brassicicola, and H. tetramera. The present extract of five plant leaves shows inhibits the plant pathogens (Sharma et al. 1982). The bark extracts were more useful than fungicide beneficial in this antifungal test. Intense strongly antifungal activity against C. parapsilosis, C. krusei and C. albicans was exist by a mixture of arjunolic acid with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values in the range of 50-200 μg/ml (Goun et al., 2003).
Ant diabetic activity
The Terminalia arjuna extracts have ability to action on diabetic. In the scientifically analysis diabetic rats model treated with Terminalia Arjuna extracts showed two enzymes (glucose-6-phosphatase, fructose-1, 6- diphosphatase) much reduced in liver and kidney. They have an ability to increase insulin secretion which can react on repression of the gluconeogenic key enzymes (glucokinase and phosphofructokinase) (Banting et al., 1992).
Terminalia arjun bark extract exposed antidiabetic activity by value the outermost utilization of glucose which has the ability to kidney glycolysis and repairing the impaired liver and by decreasing its gluconeogenic generation as like as insulin. The tannin, saponin, flavonoids and other constituent’s presence in the bark this action may be due to ability of its ingrednts, which could act valuable constitution in enhancing the effect of glycolytic and gluconeogenic enzymes (Ribnicky et al., 2006). (Mythili et al 2012) have research the prophylactic medium of arjunolic acid against streptozotocin (STZ) treat diabetes in the pancreatic tissue of Swiss albino rats.
STZ administration (at a dose of 65mg/kg body wt, injected into the tail vein) causes an increase in the production of both ROS and reactive nitrogen species (RNS) in the pancreas of labortical animals. Formations of these reactive intermediates minimize the intracellular antioxidant defense, maximize the levels of lipid peroxidation, protein carbonylation, serum glucose and TNF-α (Tiwari et al., 1989).
Bark crude methanolic extracts of Terminalia Arjuna formation anthelmintic activity both in vitro (eggs, larvae and adult of Haemonchus contortus and in vivo research against mixed gastrointestinal trichostrongylid nematodes of sheep (Athanasiadou et al., 2001). Terminalia Arjuna bark acts as Anthelmintic activity and may be mainly attributed to its tannin content that binds with a free protein formation in the tubes for larval nutrition and decrease nutrient activity resulting in larval decreased gastrointestinal metabolism by straightly inhibiting the oxidative phosphorylation thereby causing larval death (Niezen et al., 1995).
Wound healing activity
Terminalia Arjuna bark extract contain hydroalcoholic, phytoconstituents was reported to be used in topical application on healing rat dermal wounds. In rat wound created on back it have been treated with topical applied as simple ointment. Results prove that fraction III prepared as 1% simple ointment react complete epithelialization on day 20, whereas fraction I react complete epithelialization on day 9, which necessary consists of tannins (Chopra et al., 1995). The ability shows of Terminalia Arjuna to total epithelisation of excision wounds and maximum tensile strength of incision wounds (Brzozowski et al 1998).
Effect on aortic prostaglandins
Those rabbits Aortic prostaglandin E2 like activity was enhanced that were administered Terminalia Arjuna compared to those who were on placebo. The finding of raised PGE2 like activity was significant because PGE2 is known to produce coronary vasodilation. This may possibly show the pharmacological basis of the increased coronary flow following Terminalia Arjuna infusion (Dwivedi et al., 1987). This may also be participating to the important role of Terminalia Arjuna in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients.
To take two crude herbal ethanolic extract of Datura stramonium (leaves) Terminalia arjuna (bark) and Withania somnifera (root) that analyze polyherbal preparation have anti-inflammatory ability to resist the enzyme cycloxygenase (COX)leading to resist of prostaglandin synthesis vausing inflammation at the 3rd stage. Fromthe analysis of this study, it can be accomplished that polyherbal preparation resultedsignificant anti-inflammatory and analgesic activities (Golan et al., 2008).
In the stem Terminalia Arjuna isolated from Arjunolic acid exhibits significant resist activity towards 4th instar larvae of Spilarctia obliqua. More concentration to less amount of feeding and growth of the larvae has been found to be 666.9 and 617.8 ppm, respectively (Bhakuni et al., 2002).
In Terminalia Arjuna bark contain antioxidant activity test that exhibited significant antioxidant activities with the IC50 value of 7.05 μg/ml. Because of Methanol extract of Terminalia Arjuna has intense antioxidant activity and may have ability use in medicine (Brand et al., 1995).
Terminalia Arjuna contain Arjunolic acid and alcoholic extract have significant mast cell stabilization activity and arjunolic acid exhibits well better stabilization reactor than alcoholic extract of TA (Prasad et al., 2004). The antiasthmatic and antianaphylactic activity may be due to the mast cell stabilizing ability and inhibition of antigen induced histamine and acetylcholine release (Prasad et al., 2004).
Gastro protective effect
Terminalia Arjuna play important role as a gastroprotective agent probably because its cytoprotective nature and free radical scavenging activity (Gupta et al., 2001).
Decrease arsenic-induced toxicity
In its presents Arjunolic acid that play important role against arsenic-induced cellular oxidative expose (Manna et al., 2007).