PARAKANT (Paracetamol BP)
Paracetamol is indicated for the treatment of moderate pain including headache, migraine, neuralgia, toothache, sore throat, period pains, aches and pains, symptomatic relief of rheumatic aches and pains and influenza, feverishness and feverish aches.
Hypersensitivity to paracetamol or any of the constituents
Adverse effects of paracetamol are rare but hypersensitivity including skin rash may occur. There have been reports of blood dyscrasias including thrombocytopenia purpura, methaemoglobenaemia and agranulocytosis, but these were not necessarily causality related to paracetamol.
Care is advised in the administration of paracetamol to patients with severe renal or severe hepatic impairment. The hazards of overdose are greater in those with noncirrhotic alcoholic liver disease.
Do not exceed the stated dose.
Do not take with any other paracetamol containing products.
If symptoms persist for more than 3 days or get worse consult your doctor
Dosage and duration of treatment
Adults, the elderly and young persons over 12 years: 2 tablets every 4 hours to a maximum of 8 tablets in 24 hours.
Children 6-12 years: ½ to 1 tablet every 4 hours to a maximum of 4 tablets in 24 hours
Infants 6 months-1 year: 2.5ml (half a medicine measure) every four hours
Children 1-5 years: 5ml (one medicine measure) every four hours
Children over 5 years: 5-10 ml (one to two medicine measures) every four hours.
Do not give to children aged under 6 years.
Or as directed by physician
Posology and mode of administration
Paracetamol tablets should be swallowed whole with plenty of liquid and may be taken after meals.
Paracetamol has analgesic and anti-pyretic actions.
Analgesic- the mechanism of analgesic action has not been fully determined. Paracetamol may act predominantly by inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis in the central nervous system (CNS) and to a lesser extent, through a peripheral action by blocking pain impulse generation.
The peripheral action may also be due to inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis or to inhibition of the synthesis or action of other substances that sensitize pain receptors to mechanical or chemical stimulation.
Antipyretic- paracetamol probably produces antipyresis by acting centrally on the hypothalamic heat-regulation center to produce peripheral vasodilation resulting in increase blood flow through the skin, sweating and heat loss. The central action probably involves inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis in the hypothalamus.
Paracetamol is readily absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract with peak plasma concentrations occurring about 30 minutes to 2 hours after ingestion. It is metabolised in the liver and excreted in the urine mainly as the glucuronide and sulphate conjugates.
Less than 5% is excreted as unchanged paracetamol. The elimination half-life varies from about 1-4 hours.
A minor hydroxylated metabolite which is usually produced in very small amounts by mixed-function oxidase in the liver and which is usually detoxified by conjugation with liver glutathione may accumulate following paracetamol overdosage and cause.
Cholestyramine: The speed of absorption of paracetamol is reduced by cholestyramine
Metoclopramide and Domperidone: The absorption of paracetamol is increased by metoclopramide and domperidone.
Warfarin: The anticoagulant effects of warfarin and other coumarins may be enhanced by prolonged regular use of paracetamol with increased risk of bleeding; occasional doses have no significant effect.
Chloramphenicol: Increased plasma concentration of chloramphenicol.