Piperacillin/Tazobactam

Piperacillin/Tazobactam

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Piperacillin/Tazobactam contains piperacillin and tazobactam, which belong to the group of medicines known as penicillins, including beta-lactamase inhibitors. Piperacillin belongs to the group of medicines known as ‘broad-spectrum penicillin antibiotics’. It can kill many kinds of bacteria. Tazobactam can prevent some resistant bacteria from surviving the effects of piperacillin. This means that when piperacillin and tazobactam are given together, more types of bacteria are killed.

Piperacillin/Tazobactam is used in adults and adolescents to treat bacterial infections, such as those affecting the lower respiratory tract (lungs), urinary tract (kidneys and bladder), abdomen, skin or blood. Piperacillin/Tazobactam may be used to treat bacterial infections in patients with low white blood cell counts (reduced resistance to infections).



Piperacillin/Tazobactam is used in children aged 2-12 years to treat infections of the abdomen such as appendicitis, peritonitis (infection of the fluid and lining of the abdominal organs), and gallbladder (biliary) infections.

Piperacillin/Tazobactam may be used to treat bacterial infections in patients with low white blood cell counts (reduced resistance to infections). In certain serious infections, your doctor may consider using Piperacillin/Tazobactam in combination with other antibiotics.

Antibiotic Class: Beta-lactam/beta-lactamase inhibitor

Antimicrobial Spectrum:

Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible), Coagulase negative Staphylococci, Streptococcus pneumoniae (penicillin susceptible), Streptococcus spp., Haemophilus influenzae, Moraxella catarrhalis, Neisseria meningitides, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Enterobacteriaceae, E.coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Mechanism of Action:

The beta-lactamase inhibitors are recognized as substrates for the beta-lactamases produced by bacteria. This allows the actual beta-lactams to attack the bacterial cell wall by binding to penicillin binding proteins

Indications:

Treatment of moderate-to-severe infections caused by susceptible organisms, including infections of the lower respiratory tract (community-acquired pneumonia, nosocomial pneumonia); uncomplicated and complicated skin and skin structures (including diabetic foot infections); gynecologic (endometritis, pelvic inflammatory disease); and intra-abdominal infections (appendicitis with rupture/abscess, peritonitis).

Tazobactam expands activity of piperacillin to include beta-lactamase producing strains of S. aureus, H. influenzae, E. coli, Bacteroides spp, and other gram-positive and gram-negative aerobic and anaerobic bacteria.

Dosage

The dose of medicine given to you depends on what you are being treated for, your age, and whether or not you have kidney problems.

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Adults and adolescents aged 12 years or older

The usual dose is 4 g / 0.5 g of piperacillin / tazobactam given every 6-8 hours, which is given into one of your veins (directly into the blood stream).

Children aged 2 to 12 years

The usual dose for children with abdominal infections is 100 mg / 12.5 mg / kg of body weight of piperacillin / tazobactam given every 8 hours into one of your veins (directly into the blood stream). The usual dose for children with low white blood cell counts is 80 mg / 10 mg / kg of body weight of piperacillin / tazobactam given every 6 hours into one of your veins (directly into the blood stream).


Your doctor will calculate the dose depending on your child’s weight but each individual dose will not exceed 4 g / 0.5 g of Piperacillin / tazobactam. You will be given Piperacillin / tazobactam until the sign of infection has gone completely (5 to 14 days)

Common side effects (may affect up to 1 in 10 people)

Yeast infection

Decrease in platelets, decrease of red blood cells or blood pigment / haemoglobin, abnormal lab test (positive direct Coombs), prolonged blood clotting time (activated partial thromboplastin time prolonged)

Decrease in blood protein

Headache, sleeplessness

Abdominal pain, vomiting, nausea, constipation, upset stomach

Increase in blood liver enzymes

Skin rash, itching

Abnormal kidney blood tests

Fever, injection site reaction

Uncommon side effects (may affect up to 1 in 100 people)

Decrease in white blood cells (leukopenia), prolonged blood clotting time (prothrombin time prolonged)

Decreased blood potassium, decreased blood sugar

Low blood pressure, inflammation of the veins (felt as tenderness or redness in the affected area), reddening of skin

Increase of a blood pigment breakdown product (bilirubin)

Skin reactions with redness, formation of skin lesions, nettle rash

Joint and muscle pain

chills

Rare side effects (may affect up to 1 in 1,000 people) are:

Severe decrease in white blood cells (agranulocytosis), bleeding of the nose

Serious infection of the colon, inflammation of the mucous lining of the mouth

Detachment of the top layer of the skin all over the body (toxic epidermal necrolysis)





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