Sertraline hydrochloride tablets are a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) for oral administration. It has a molecular weight of 342.7. Sertraline hydrochloride has the following chemical name: (1S-cis)-4-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-N-methyl-1-naphthalenamine hydrochloride. The molecular formula C17H17NCl2•HCl.
Sertraline hydrochloride is a white crystalline powder that is slightly soluble in water and isopropyl alcohol, and sparingly soluble in ethanol.
Sertraline hydrochloride tablets are supplied for oral administration as scored tablets containing sertraline hydrochloride equivalent to 25 mg, 50 mg, and 100 mg of sertraline and the following inactive ingredients: microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate, hydroxypropyl cellulose, dibasic calcium phosphate dihydrate, magnesium stearate, hypromellose, titanium dioxide, polyethylene glycol, and polysorbate 80. Besides, 25 mg contains D&C yellow #10 aluminum lake, FD&C blue #1 aluminum lake, FD&C red #40 aluminum lake; 50 mg contains FD&C blue #2 aluminum lake; and 100 mg contains iron oxide yellow.
The mechanism of action of sertraline is presumed to be linked to its inhibition of CNS neuronal uptake of serotonin (5HT). Studies at clinically relevant doses in man have demonstrated that sertraline blocks the uptake of serotonin into human platelets.
In vitro studies in animals also suggest that sertraline is a potent and selective inhibitor of neuronal serotonin reuptake and has only very weak effects on norepinephrine and dopamine neuronal reuptake. In vitro studies have shown that sertraline has no significant affinity for adrenergic (alpha, alpha, beta), cholinergic, GABA, dopaminergic, histaminergic, serotonergic (5HT, 5HT, 5HT), or benzodiazepine receptors; antagonism of such receptors has been hypothesized to be associated with various anticholinergic, sedative, and cardiovascular effects for other psychotropic drugs.
The chronic administration of sertraline was found in animals to down regulate brain norepinephrine receptors, as has been observed with other drugs effective in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Sertraline does not inhibit monoamine oxidase.
INDICATIONS & USAGE
Major Depressive Disorder: Sertraline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of major depressive disorder in adults.
Obsessive-Compulsive Dis order: Sertraline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of obsessions and compulsions inpatients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), as defined in the DSM-III-R; i.e., the obsessions or compulsions cause marked distress, are time-consuming, or significantly interfere with social or occupational functioning.
Panic Disorder: Sertraline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of panic disorder in adults, with or without agoraphobia, as defined in DSM-IV. Panic disorder is characterized by the occurrence of unexpected panic attacks and associated concern about having additional attacks, worry about the implications or consequences of the attacks, and/or a significant change in behavior related to the attacks.
Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD): Sertraline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder in adults.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder (PMDD): Sertraline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder(PMDD) in adults.
Social Anxiety Disorder: Sertraline hydrochloride tablets are indicated for the treatment of social anxiety disorder, also known as social phobia in adults.
Concomitant use in patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) is contraindicated. Concomitant use in patients taking pimozide is contraindicated.
Sertraline hydrochloride tablets are contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to sertraline or any of the inactive ingredients in sertraline hydrochloride tablets.
Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk
Patients with major depressive disorder (MDD), both adult and pediatric, may experience worsening of their depression and/or the emergence of suicidal ideation and behavior (suicidality) or unusual changes in behavior, whether or not they are taking antidepressant medications, and this risk may persist until significant remission occurs. Suicide is a known risk of depression and certain other psychiatric disorders, and these disorders themselves are the strongest predictors of suicide.
All patients being treated with antidepressants for any indication should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, and unusual changes in behavior, especially during the initial few months of a course of drug therapy, or at times of dose changes, either increases or decreases.
Screening Patients for Bipolar Disorder
A major depressive episode may be the initial presentation of bipolar disorder. It is generally believed (though not established in controlled trials) that treating such an episode with an antidepressant alone may increase the likelihood of precipitation of a mixed/manic episode in patients at risk for bipolar disorder. Whether any of the symptoms described above represent such a conversion is unknown.
However, prior to initiating treatment with an antidepressant, patients with depressive symptoms should be adequately screened to determine if they are at risk for bipolar disorder; such screening should include a detailed psychiatric history, including a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression. It should be noted that sertraline hydrochloride is not approved for use in treating bipolar depression.
Serotonin Syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)-like Reactions
The development of a potentially life-threatening serotonin syndrome or Neuroleptic Malignant Syndrome (NMS)-like reactions have been reported with SNRIs and SSRIs alone, including sertralinehydrochloride treatment, but particularly with concomitant use of serotonergic drugs (including triptans) with drugs which impair metabolism of serotonin (including MAOIs), or with antipsychotics or other dopamine antagonists.
Potential Effects of Coadministration of Drugs Highly Bound to Plasma Proteins
Because sertraline is tightly bound to plasma protein, the administration of sertraline hydrochloride to a patient taking another drug which is tightly bound to protein (e.g., warfarin, digitoxin) may cause a shift in plasma concentrations potentially resulting in an adverse effect. Conversely, adverse effects may result from displacement of protein bound sertraline hydrochloride by other tightly bound drugs.
Use in specific populations
Pregnancy Category C: There are no adequate and wellcontrolled studies in pregnant women. Sertraline hydrochloride should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.
Nonteratogenic Effects: Neonates exposed to sertraline hydrochloride and other SSRIs or SNRIs, late in the third trimester havedeveloped complications requiring prolonged hospitalization, respiratory support, and tube feeding.
These findings are based on postmarketing reports. Such complications can arise immediately upon delivery. Reported clinical findings have included respiratory distress, cyanosis, apnea, seizures, temperature instability, feeding difficulty, vomiting, hypoglycemia, hypotonia, hypertonia, hyperreflexia, tremor, jitteriness, irritability, and constant crying. These features are consistent with either a direct toxic effect of SSRIs and SNRIs or, possibly, a drug discontinuation syndrome. It should be noted that, in some cases, the clinical picture is consistent with serotonin syndrome
Labor & Delivery: The effect of sertraline hydrochloride on labor and delivery in humans is unknown.
Nursing Mothers: It is not known whether, and if so in what amount, sertraline or its metabolites are excreted in humanmilk. Because many drugs are excreted in human milk, caution should be exercised when sertralinehydrochloride is administered to a nursing woman.
Autonomic Nervous System Disorders –Frequent: impotence; Infrequent: flushing, increased saliva, cold clammy skin, mydriasis; Rare: pallor, glaucoma, priapism, vasodilation.
Body as a Whole–General Dis orders –Rare: allergic reaction, allergy.
Cardiovascular–Frequent: palpitations, chest pain; Infrequent: hypertension, tachycardia, postural dizziness, postural hypotension, periorbital edema, peripheral edema, hypotension, peripheral ischemia, syncope, edema, dependent edema; Rare: precordial chest pain, substernal chest pain, aggravated hypertension, myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular disorder.
Central and Peripheral Nervous System Disorders –Frequent: hypertonia, hypoesthesia; Infrequent: twitching, confusion, hyperkinesia, vertigo, ataxia, migraine, abnormal coordination, hyperesthesia, leg cramps, abnormal gait, nystagmus, hypokinesia; Rare: dysphonia, coma, dyskinesia, hypotonia, ptosis,choreoathetosis, hyporeflexia.
Disorders of Skin and Appendages –lnfrequent: pruritus, acne, urticaria, alopecia, dry skin, erythematous rash, photosensitivity reaction, maculopapular rash; Rare: follicular rash, eczema, dermatitis, contact dermatitis, bullous eruption, hypertrichosis, skin discoloration, pustular rash.
Endocrine Dis orders –Rare: exophthalmos, gynecomastia.
Gastrointestinal Disorders –Frequent: appetite increased; Infrequent: dysphagia, tooth caries aggravated, eructation, esophagitis, gastroenteritis; Rare: melena, glossitis, gum hyperplasia, hiccup, stomatitis, tenesmus, colitis, diverticulitis, fecal incontinence, gastritis, rectum hemorrhage, hemorrhagic peptic ulcer, proctitis, ulcerative stomatitis, tongue edema, tongue ulceration.
General–Frequent: back pain, asthenia, malaise, weight increase; Infrequent: fever, rigors, generalized edema; Rare: face edema, aphthous stomatitis.
Hearing and Vestibular Disorders –Rare: hyperacusis, labyrinthine disorder.
Hematopoietic and Lymphatic–Rare: anemia, anterior chamber eye hemorrhage.
Liver and Biliary System Disorders –Rare: abnormal hepatic function.
Metabolic and Nutritional Disorders –Infrequent: thirst; Rare: hypoglycemia, hypoglycemia reaction.
Musculoskeletal System Disorders –Frequent: myalgia; Infrequent: arthralgia, dystonia, arthrosis, muscle cramps, muscle weakness.
Psychiatric Disorders –Frequent: yawning, other male sexual dysfunction, other female sexual dysfunction; Infrequent: depression, amnesia, paroniria, teeth-grinding, emotional lability, apathy, abnormal dreams, euphoria, paranoid reaction, hallucination, aggressive reaction, aggravated depression, delusions; Rare: withdrawal syndrome, suicide ideation, libido increased, somnambulism, illusion.
Reproductive–Infrequent: menstrual disorder, dysmenorrhea, intermenstrual bleeding, vaginal hemorrhage, amenorrhea, leukorrhea; Rare: female breast pain, menorrhagia, balanoposthitis, breast enlargement, atrophic vaginitis, acute female mastitis.
Respiratory System Disorders –Frequent: rhinitis; Infrequent: coughing, dyspnea, upper respiratory tract infection, epistaxis, bronchospasm, sinusitis; Rare: hyperventilation, bradypnea, stridor, apnea, bronchitis, hemoptysis, hypoventilation, laryngismus, laryngitis.
Special Senses –Frequent: tinnitus; Infrequent: conjunctivitis, earache, eye pain, abnormal accommodation; Rare: xerophthalmia, photophobia, diplopia, abnormal lacrimation, scotoma, visual field defect.
Urinary System Disorders –Infrequent: micturition frequency, polyuria, urinary retention, dysuria, nocturia, urinary incontinence; Rare: cystitis, oliguria, pyelonephritis, hematuria, renal pain, strangury.
Of 1,027 cases of overdose involving sertraline hydrochloride worldwide, alone or with other drugs, there were 72 deaths (circa 1999).
Among 634 overdoses in which sertraline hydrochloride was the only drug ingested, 8 resulted in fatal outcome, 75 completely recovered, and 27 patients experienced sequelae after overdosage to include alopecia, decreased libido, diarrhea, ejaculation disorder, fatigue, insomnia, somnolence and serotonin syndrome. The remaining 524 cases had an unknown outcome. The most common signs and symptoms associated with non-fatal sertraline hydrochloride overdosage were somnolence, vomiting, tachycardia, nausea, dizziness, agitation and tremor.
The largest known ingestion was 13.5 grams in a patient who took sertraline hydrochloride alone and subsequently recovered. However, another patient who took 2.5 grams of sertraline hydrochloride alone experienced a fatal outcome.
Other important adverse events reported with sertraline hydrochloride overdose (single or multiple drugs) include bradycardia, bundle branch block, coma, convulsions, delirium, hallucinations, hypertension, hypotension, manic reaction, pancreatitis, QT-interval prolongation, serotonin syndrome, stupor and syncope.
Treatment should consist of those general measures employed in the management of overdosage with any antidepressant.
Ensure an adequate airway, oxygenation and ventilation. Monitor cardiac rhythm and vital signs. General supportive and symptomatic measures are also recommended. Induction of emesis is not recommended.
Gastric lavage with a large-bore orogastric tube with appropriate airway protection, if needed, may be indicated if performed soon after ingestion, or in symptomatic patients.
Activated charcoal should be administered. Due to large volume of distribution of this drug, forced diuresis, dialysis, hemoperfusion and exchange transfusion are unlikely to be of benefit. No specific antidotes for sertraline are known.
DOSAGE & ADMINISTRATION
Dosage for Adults
Major Depressive Disorder and Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder
Sertraline hydrochloride tablets treatment should be administered at a dose of 50 mg once daily.
Panic Disorder, Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Social Anxiety Disorder
Sertraline hydrochloride tablets treatment should be initiated with a dose of 25 mg once daily. After one week, the dose should be increased to 50 mg once daily.
While a relationship between dose and effect has not been established for major depressive disorder, OCD, panic disorder, PTSD or social anxiety disorder, patients were dosed in a range of 50 to 200 mg/day in the clinical trials demonstrating the effectiveness of sertraline hydrochloride tablets for the treatment of these indications. Consequently, a dose of 50 mg, administered once daily, is recommended as the initial therapeutic dose. Patients not responding to a 50 mg dose may benefit from dose increases up to a maximum of 200 mg/day. Given the 24 hour elimination half-life of sertraline hydrochloride, dose changes should not occur at intervals of less than 1 week.
Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
Sertraline hydrochloride tablets treatment should be initiated with a dose of 50 mg/day, either daily throughout the menstrual cycle or limited to the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle, depending on physician assessment.
While a relationship between dose and effect has not been established for PMDD, patients were dosed in the range of 50 to 150 mg/day with dose increases at the onset of each new menstrual cycle. Patients not responding to a 50 mg/day dose may benefit from dose increases (at 50 mg increments/menstrual cycle) up to 150 mg/day when dosing daily throughout the menstrual cycle, or 100 mg/day when dosing during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle. If a 100 mg/day dose has been established with luteal phase dosing, a 50 mg/day titration step for three days should be utilized at the beginning of each luteal phase dosing period.
Sertraline hydrochloride tablets should be administered once daily, either in the morning or evening.
Dos age for Pediatric Population (Children and Adolescents)
Sertraline hydrochloride tablets treatment should be initiated with a dose of 25 mg once daily in children (ages 6 to 12) and at a dose of 50 mg once daily in adolescents (ages 13 to 17).
While a relationship between dose and effect has not been established for OCD, patients were dosed in a range of 25 to 200 mg/day in the clinical trials demonstrating the effectiveness of sertraline hydrochloride tablets for pediatric patients (6 to 17 years) with OCD. Patients not responding to an initial dose of 25 or 50 mg/day may benefit from dose increases up to a maximum of 200 mg/day. For children with OCD, their generally lower body weights compared to adults should be taken into consideration in advancing the dose, in order to avoid excess dosing. Given the 24 hour elimination half-life of sertraline hydrochloride, dose changes should not occur at intervals of less than 1 week.
Sertraline hydrochloride tablets should be administered once daily, either in the morning or evening.