chest pain

Pleural Disorders

What Are Pleural Disorders?

Pleural disorders are conditions that affect the tissue that covers the outside of the lungs and lines the inside of your chest cavity. The tissue is called the pleura, and the thin space between its two layers is called the pleural space. A small amount of fluid fills the pleural space, and when you breathe in and out, this fluid helps the pleural layers glide smoothly against each other.

pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH)

What Is Pulmonary Hypertension?

Pulmonary hypertension occurs when the pressure in the blood vessels that carry blood from your heart to your lungs is higher than normal. One type of pulmonary hypertension is pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Pulmonary hypertension can happen on its own or be caused by another disease or condition.

Aortic valve disease: causes, diagnosis and treatment

What Are Heart Valve Diseases?

Heart valve diseases are problems affecting one or more of the four valves in the heart. Heart valves open and shut with each heartbeat to keep blood flowing in the right direction. Problems with heart valves can occur if the valves are leaky (a condition called regurgitation), too narrow (stenosis), or don’t have a proper opening (atresia).


What Is Angina?

Pain and discomfort are the main symptoms of angina. Angina is often described as pressure, squeezing, burning, indigestion, or tightness in the chest. The pain or discomfort usually starts behind the breastbone. Some people say that angina pain is hard to describe or that they cannot tell exactly where the pain is coming from.



Patients often do not refer to angina as “pain” but as a sensation of tightness, squeezing, burning, pressing, choking, aching, bursting, “gas,” indigestion, or an ill-characterized discomfort. It is often characterized by clenching a fist over the mid chest.