Medicinal uses and athletic applications of Ephedra (ma huang)

Ephedra, also known as “ma huang”, is a dioecious, drought- and frost-resistant, perennial, evergreen shrub. It is native to central Asia and distributed throughout China, Tibet, India, Japan, Southern Siberia, Spain, Sicily, and Afghanistan (Morton, 1977; Grieve, 1979; Budavari, 1996; Leung and Foster, 1996).