Varicose Veins and Spider Veins
Varicose (VAR-i-kos) veins are enlarged veins that can be blue, red, or flesh colored. They often look like cords and appear twisted and bulging. They can be swollen and raised above the surface of the skin. Varicose veins are often found on the thighs, backs of the calves, or the inside of the leg. During pregnancy, varicose veins can form around the vagina and buttocks. There is a spectrum ranging from telangiectasias (dilated interdermal venules less than 1 mm), through to reticular veins (non-palpable subdermal veins 1–3 mm) to varicose veins (greater than 3 mm).
Spider veins are like varicose veins but smaller. They also are closer to the surface of the skin than varicose veins. Often, they are red or blue. They can look like tree branches or spider webs with their short, jagged lines. They can be found on the legs and face and can cover either a very small or very large area of skin.
What causes varicose veins and spider veins?
Varicose veins can be caused by weak or damaged valves in the veins. The heart pumps blood filled with oxygen and nutrients to the whole body through the arteries. Veins then carry the blood from the body back to the heart. As your leg muscles squeeze, they push blood back to the heart from your lower body against the f low of gravity. Veins have valves that act as one-way f laps to prevent blood from f lowing backwards as it moves up your legs. If the valves become weak, blood can leak back into the veins and collect there. (This problem is called venous insufficiency.) When backed-up blood makes the veins bigger, they can become varicose.
Spider veins can be caused by the back-up of blood. They can also be caused by hormone changes, exposure to the sun, and injuries.
Risk of varicose veins and spider veins
Yes. Your risk of varicose veins and spider veins may be higher if you:
• Have a family or personal history of varicose veins or spider veins.
• Sit or stand for long periods. Sitting or standing for a long time, especially for more than 4 hours at a time, may make your veins work harder against gravity to pump blood to your heart.
• Have overweight or obesity. Having overweight or obesity can put extra pressure on your veins.
• Are pregnant. During pregnancy, the amount of blood pumping through your body increases to support your unborn baby. The extra blood causes your veins to swell. Your growing uterus (womb) also puts pressure on your veins. Varicose veins may go away within a few months after childbirth, or they may remain and continue to cause symptoms.
• Are older. As you get older, the valves in your veins may weaken and not work as well. Your calf muscles also weaken as you age. Your calf muscles normally help squeeze veins and send blood back toward the heart as you walk.
• Use hormonal birth control or menopausal hormone therapy. The hormone estrogen may weaken vein valves and lead to varicose veins. Using hormonal birth control or taking menopausal hormone therapy may raise your risk of varicose or spider veins.
• Medical history. Being born with weak vein valves increases your risk. Having family members with vein problems also increases your risk. About half of all people who have varicose veins have a family member who has them too.
• Sun exposure. This can cause spider veins on the cheeks or nose of a fair-skinned person.
How common are abnormal leg veins?
About 50 to 55 percent of women and 40 to 45 percent of men in the United States suffer from some type of vein problem. Varicose veins affect half of people 50 years and older.
Why do varicose veins and spider veins usually appear in the legs?
Most varicose and spider veins appear in the legs due to the pressure of body weight, force of gravity, and task of carrying blood from the bottom of the body up to the heart.
Compared with other veins in the body, leg veins have the toughest job of carrying blood back to the heart. They endure the most pressure. This pressure can be stronger than the one-way valves in the veins.
What are the signs of varicose veins?
Varicose veins can often be seen on the skin. Some other common symptoms of varicose veins in the legs include:
• Aching pain that may get worse after sitting or standing for a long time
• Throbbing or cramping
• Rash that’s itchy or irritated
• Darkening of the skin (in severe cases)
• Restless legs
Are varicose veins and spider veins dangerous?
Spider veins rarely are a serious health problem, but they can cause uncomfortable feelings in the legs. If there are symptoms from spider veins, most often they will be itching or burning. Less often, spider veins can be a sign of blood backup deeper inside that you can’t see on the skin. If so, you could have the same symptoms you would have with varicose veins.
Varicose veins may not cause any problems, or they may cause aching pain, throbbing, and discomfort. In some cases, varicose veins can lead to more serious health problems. These include:
• Sores or skin ulcers due to chronic (long-term) backing up of blood. These sores or ulcers are painful and hard to heal. Sometimes they cannot heal until the backward blood f low in the vein is repaired.
• Bleeding. The skin over the veins becomes thin and easily injured. When an injury occurs, there can be significant blood loss.
• Superficial thrombophlebitis (throm-bo-f li-BYT-uhs), which is a blood clot that forms in a vein just below the skin. Symptoms include skin redness; a firm, tender, warm vein; and sometimes pain and swelling.
• Deep vein thrombosis, which is a blood clot in a deeper vein. It can cause a “pulling” feeling in the calf, pain, warmth, redness, and swelling. However, sometimes it causes no significant symptoms. If the blood clot travels to the lungs, it can be fatal.
Should I see a doctor about varicose veins?
You should see a doctor about varicose veins if:
• The vein has become swollen, red, or very tender or warm to the touch
• There are sores or a rash on the leg or near the ankle
• The skin on the ankle and calf becomes thick and changes color
• One of the varicose veins begins to bleed
• Your leg symptoms are interfering with daily activities
• The appearance of the veins is causing you distress.
If you’re having pain, even if it’s just a dull ache, don’t hesitate to get help. Also, even if you don’t need to see a doctor about your varicose veins, you should take steps to keep them from getting worse.
How are varicose veins diagnosed?
Your doctor may diagnose your varicose veins based on a physical exam. Your doctor will look at your legs while you’re standing or sitting with your legs dangling. He or she may ask you about your symptoms, including any pain you’re having. Sometimes, you may have other tests to find out the extent of the problem and to rule out other disorders.
You might have an ultrasound, which is used to see the veins’ structure, check the blood flow in your veins, and look for blood clots. This test uses sound waves to create pictures of structures in your body.
Although less likely, you might have a venogram. This test can be used to get a more detailed look at blood f low through your veins. If you seek help for your varicose veins, there are several types of doctors you can see, including:
• A phlebologist, which is a vein specialist
• A vascular medicine doctor, who focuses on the blood system
• A vascular surgeon, who can perform surgery and do other procedures
• An interventional radiologist, who specializes in using imaging tools to see inside the body and do treatments with little or no cutting
• A dermatologist, who specializes in skin conditions
How are varicose and spider veins treated?
Varicose veins are treated with lifestyle changes and medical treatments. These can:
• Relieve symptoms
• Prevent complications
• Improve appearance
Your doctor may recommend lifestyle changes if your varicose veins don’t cause many symptoms. If symptoms are more severe, your doctor may recommend medical treatments. Some treatment options include:
How can I prevent varicose veins and spider veins?
Not all varicose and spider veins can be prevented. But, there are some steps you can take to reduce your chances of getting new varicose and spider veins. These same things can help ease discomfort from the ones you already have:
• Wear sunscreen to protect your skin from the sun and to limit spider veins on the face.
• Exercise regularly to improve your leg strength, circulation, and vein strength. Focus on exercises that work your legs, such as walking or running.
• Control your weight to avoid placing too much pressure on your legs.
• Don’t cross your legs for long times when sitting. It’s possible to injure your legs that way, and even a minor injury can increase the risk of varicose veins.
• Elevate your legs when resting as much as possible.
• Don’t stand or sit for long periods of time. If you must stand for a long time, shift your weight from one leg to the other every few minutes. If you must sit for long periods of time, stand up and move around or take a short walk every 30 minutes.
• Wear elastic support stockings and avoid tight clothing that constricts your waist, groin, or legs.
• Avoid wearing high heels for long periods of time. Lower-heeled shoes can help tone your calf muscles to help blood move through your veins.
• Eat a low-salt diet rich in high-fiber foods. Eating fiber reduces the chances of constipation, which can contribute to varicose veins. High-fiber foods include fresh fruits and vegetables and whole grains, like bran. Eating less salt can help with the swelling that comes with varicose veins.