VYVANSE® (lisdexamfetamine dimesylate)
VYVANSE is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant prescription medicine , is for once-a-day oral administration. The chemical designation for lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is (2S)-2,6-diaminoN-[(1S)-1-methyl-2-phenylethyl] hexanamide dimethanesulfonate. The molecular formula is C15H25N3O•(CH4O3S)2, which corresponds to a molecular weight of 455.60. Lisdexamfetamine dimesylate is a white to off-white powder that is soluble in water (792 mg/mL)
Mechanism of Action
Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine. Amphetamines are non-catecholamine sympathomimetic amines with CNS stimulant activity. The exact mode of therapeutic action in ADHD and BED is not known.
Amphetamines block the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine into the presynaptic neuron and increase the release of these monoamines into the extraneuronal space. The parent drug, lisdexamfetamine, does not bind to the sites responsible for the reuptake of norepinephrine and dopamine in vitro.
Pharmacokinetic studies after oral administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate have been conducted in healthy adult (capsule and chewable tablet formulations) and pediatric (6 to 12 years) patients with ADHD (capsule formulation). After single dose administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate, pharmacokinetics of dextroamphetamine was found to be linear between 30 mg and 70 mg in a pediatric study (6 to 12 years), and between 50 mg and 250 mg in an adult study. Dextroamphetamine pharmacokinetic parameters following administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate in adults exhibited low inter-subject (<25%) and intra-subject (<8%) variability. There is no accumulation of lisdexamfetamine and dextroamphetamine at steady state in healthy adults.
Capsule formulation: Following single-dose oral administration of VYVANSE capsule (30 mg, 50 mg, or 70 mg) in patients ages 6 to 12 years with ADHD under fasted conditions, Tmax of lisdexamfetamine and dextroamphetamine was reached at approximately 1 hour and 3.5 hours post dose, respectively. Weight/Dose normalized AUC and Cmax values were the same in pediatric patients ages 6 to 12 years as the adults following single doses of 30 mg to 70 mg VYVANSE capsule.
Chewable Tablet formulation: After a single dose administration of 60 mg VYVANSE chewable tablet in healthy subjects under fasted conditions, Tmax of lisdexamfetamine and dextroamphetamine was reached at approximately 1 hour and 4.4 hours post dose, respectively. Compared to 60 mg VYVANSE capsule, exposure (Cmax and AUC) to lisdexamfetamine was about 15% lower. The exposure (Cmax and AUCinf) of dextroamphetamine is similar between VYVANSE chewable tablet and VYVANSE capsule.
Plasma concentrations of unconverted lisdexamfetamine are low and transient, generally becoming non-quantifiable by 8 hours after administration. The plasma elimination half-life of lisdexamfetamine typically averaged less than one hour in volunteers ages 6 years and older. The plasma elimination half-life of dextroamphetamine was approximately 8.6 to 9.5 hours in pediatric patients 6 to 12 years and 10 to 11.3 hours in healthy adults.
Lisdexamfetamine is converted to dextroamphetamine and l-lysine primarily in blood due to the hydrolytic activity of red blood cells after oral administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate. In vitro data demonstrated that red blood cells have a high capacity for metabolism of lisdexamfetamine; substantial hydrolysis occurred even at low hematocrit levels (33% of normal). Lisdexamfetamine is not metabolized by cytochrome P450 enzymes.
Following oral administration of a 70 mg dose of radiolabeled lisdexamfetamine dimesylate to 6 healthy subjects, approximately 96% of the oral dose radioactivity was recovered in the urine and only 0.3% recovered in the feces over a period of 120 hours. Of the radioactivity recovered in the urine, 42% of the dose was related to amphetamine, 25% to hippuric acid, and 2% to intact lisdexamfetamine.
VYVANSE® is indicated for the treatment of:
- Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in adults and pediatric patients 6 years and older.
- Moderate to severe binge eating disorder (BED) in adults
Limitations of Use:
- Pediatric patients with ADHD younger than 6 years of age experienced more long-term weight loss than patients 6 years and older.
- VYVANSE is not indicated or recommended for weight loss. Use of other sympathomimetic drugs for weight loss has been associated with serious cardiovascular adverse events. The safety and effectiveness of VYVANSE for the treatment of obesity have not been established.
General Instructions for Use
Take VYVANSE by mouth in the morning with or without food; avoid afternoon doses because of the potential for insomnia.
VYVANSE may be administered in one of the following ways:
Information for VYVANSE capsules:
- Swallow VYVANSE capsules whole, or
- Open capsules, empty and mix the entire contents with yogurt, water, or orange juice. If the contents of the capsule include any compacted powder, a spoon may be used to break apart the powder. The contents should be mixed until completely dispersed. Consume the entire mixture immediately. It should not be stored. The active ingredient dissolves completely once dispersed; however, a film containing the inactive ingredients may remain in the glass or container once the mixture is consumed.
Information for VYVANSE chewable tablets:
- VYVANSE chewable tablets must be chewed thoroughly before swallowing. VYVANSE capsules can be substituted with VYVANSE chewable tablets on a unit per unit/mg per mg basis (for example, 30 mg capsules for 30 mg chewable tablet)
Do not take anything less than one capsule or chewable tablet per day. A single dose should not be divided.
Dosage for Treatment of ADHD: The recommended starting dosage in adults and pediatric patients 6 years and older is 30 mg once daily in the morning. Dosage may be adjusted in increments of 10 mg or 20 mg at approximately weekly intervals up to maximum recommended dosage of 70 mg once daily.
Dosage for Treatment of Moderate to Severe BED in Adults: The recommended starting dosage in adults is 30 mg once daily to be titrated in increments of 20 mg at approximately weekly intervals to achieve the recommended target dose of 50 mg to 70 mg once daily. The maximum recommended dosage is 70 mg once daily.
Dosage in Patients with Renal Impairment: In patients with severe renal impairment (GFR 15 to < 30 mL/min/1.73 m2 ), the maximum dosage should not exceed 50 mg once daily. In patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD, GFR < 15 mL/min/1.73 m2 ), the maximum recommended dosage is 30 mg once daily.
Dosage Modifications due to Drug Interactions: Agents that alter urinary pH can impact urinary excretion and alter blood levels of amphetamine. Acidifying agents (e.g., ascorbic acid) decrease blood levels, while alkalinizing agents (e.g., sodium bicarbonate) increase blood levels. Adjust VYVANSE dosage accordingly.
Do not take VYVANSE if you or your child are:
- allergic to amphetamine products or any of the ingredients in VYVANSE.
- taking, or have stopped taking in the last 14 days, a medicine called a Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitor (MAOI).
- being treated with the antibiotic linezolid or intravenous methylene blue
VYVANSE is contraindicated in patients with:
- Known hypersensitivity to amphetamine products or other ingredients of VYVANSE. Anaphylactic reactions, Stevens-Johnson Syndrome, angioedema, and urticaria have been observed in postmarketing reports
- Patients taking monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), or within 14 days of stopping MAOIs (including MAOIs such as linezolid or intravenous methylene blue), because of an increased risk of hypertensive crisis
Warnings and precautions
Potential for Abuse and Dependence: CNS stimulants, including VYVANSE, other amphetamine-containing products, and methylphenidate, have a high potential for abuse and dependence. Assess the risk of abuse prior to prescribing, and monitor for signs of abuse and dependence while on therapy.
Serious Cardiovascular Reactions: Sudden death, stroke, and myocardial infarction have been reported in adults with CNS stimulant treatment at recommended doses. Sudden death has been reported in pediatric patients with structural cardiac abnormalities and other serious heart problems taking CNS stimulants at recommended doses for ADHD. Avoid use in patients with known structural cardiac abnormalities, cardiomyopathy, serious heart arrhythmia, coronary artery disease, and other serious heart problems. Further evaluate patients who develop exertional chest pain, unexplained syncope, or arrhythmias during VYVANSE treatment.
Blood Pressure and Heart Rate: Increases CNS stimulants cause an increase in blood pressure (mean increase about 2 to 4 mm Hg) and heart rate (mean increase about 3 to 6 bpm). Monitor all patients for potential tachycardia and hypertension.
Psychiatric Adverse Reactions
Exacerbation of Pre-existing Psychosis: CNS stimulants may exacerbate symptoms of behavior disturbance and thought disorder in patients with a pre-existing psychotic disorder.
Induction of a Manic Episode in Patients with Bipolar Disorder: CNS stimulants may induce a mixed/manic episode in patients with bipolar disorder. Prior to initiating treatment, screen patients for risk factors for developing a manic episode (e.g., comorbid or history of depressive symptoms or a family history of suicide, bipolar disorder, and depression).
New Psychotic or Manic Symptoms: CNS stimulants, at recommended doses, may cause psychotic or manic symptoms (e.g., hallucinations, delusional thinking, or mania) in patients without a prior history of psychotic illness or mania. If such symptoms occur, consider discontinuing VYVANSE. In a pooled analysis of multiple short-term, placebo-controlled studies of CNS stimulants, psychotic or manic symptoms occurred in 0.1% of CNS stimulant-treated patients compared to 0% in placebo-treated patients.
Suppression of Growth: CNS stimulants have been associated with weight loss and slowing of growth rate in pediatric patients. Closely monitor growth (weight and height) in pediatric patients treated with CNS stimulants, including VYVANSE. In a 4-week, placebo-controlled trial of VYVANSE in pediatric patients ages 6 to 12 years old with ADHD, there was a dose-related decrease in weight in the VYVANSE groups compared to weight gain in the placebo group. Additionally, in studies of another stimulant, there was slowing of the increase in height.
Patients who are not growing or gaining height or weight as expected may need to have their treatment interrupted. VYVANSE is not approved for use in pediatric patients below 6 years of age.
Peripheral Vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s Phenomenon: Stimulants, including VYVANSE, are associated with peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon. Signs and symptoms are usually intermittent and mild; however, very rare sequelae include digital ulceration and/or soft tissue breakdown. Effects of peripheral vasculopathy, including Raynaud’s phenomenon, were observed in post-marketing reports at different times and at therapeutic doses in all age groups throughout the course of treatment. Signs and symptoms generally improve after reduction in dose or discontinuation of drug. Careful observation for digital changes is necessary during treatment with stimulants. Further clinical evaluation (e.g., rheumatology referral) may be appropriate for certain patients.
Serotonin Syndrome: Serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening reaction, may occur when amphetamines are used in combination with other drugs that affect the serotonergic neurotransmitter systems such as monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), triptans, tricyclic antidepressants, fentanyl, lithium, tramadol, tryptophan, buspirone, and St. John’s Wort. The coadministration with cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) inhibitors may also increase the risk with increased exposure to the active metabolite of VYVANSE (dextroamphetamine). In these situations, consider an alternative non-serotonergic drug or an alternative drug that does not inhibit CYP2D6.
Serotonin syndrome symptoms may include mental status changes (e.g., agitation, hallucinations, delirium, and coma), autonomic instability (e.g., tachycardia, labile blood pressure, dizziness, diaphoresis, flushing, hyperthermia), neuromuscular symptoms (e.g., tremor, rigidity, myoclonus, hyperreflexia, incoordination), seizures, and/or gastrointestinal symptoms (e.g., nausea, vomiting, diarrhea).
MAO Inhibitors (MAOI): MAOI antidepressants slow amphetamine metabolism, increasing amphetamines effect on the release of norepinephrine and other monoamines from adrenergic nerve endings causing headaches and other signs of hypertensive crisis. Toxic neurological effects and malignant hyperpyrexia can occur, sometimes with fatal results.
Serotonergic Drugs: The concomitant use of VYVANSE and serotonergic drugs increases the risk of serotonin syndrome.
CYP2D6 Inhibitors: The concomitant use of VYVANSE and CYP2D6 inhibitors may increase the exposure of dextroamphetamine, the active metabolite of VYVANSE compared to the use of the drug alone and increase the risk of serotonin syndrome.
Alkalinizing Agents: Urinary alkalinizing agents can increase blood levels and potentiate the action of amphetamine.
Acidifying Agents: Urinary acidifying agents can lower blood levels and efficacy of amphetamines.
Tricyclic Antidepressants: May enhance the activity of tricyclic or sympathomimetic agents causing striking and sustained increases in the concentration of d-amphetamine in the brain; cardiovascular effects can be potentiated.
Fetal/Neonatal Adverse Reactions
Amphetamines, such as VYVANSE, cause vasoconstriction and thereby may decrease placental perfusion. In addition, amphetamines can stimulate uterine contractions increasing the risk of premature delivery. Infants born to amphetamine-dependent mothers have an increased risk of premature delivery and low birth weight. Monitor infants born to mothers taking amphetamines for symptoms of withdrawal such as feeding difficulties, irritability, agitation, and excessive drowsiness.
Consult with a Certified Poison Control Center (1-800-222-1222) for up-to-date guidance and advice for treatment of overdosage. Individual patient response to amphetamines varies widely. Toxic symptoms may occur idiosyncratically at low doses.
Manifestations of amphetamine overdose include restlessness, tremor, hyperreflexia, rapid respiration, confusion, assaultiveness, hallucinations, panic states, hyperpyrexia and rhabdomyolysis. Fatigue and depression usually follow the central nervous system stimulation. Serotonin syndrome has been reported with amphetamine use, including VYVANSE. Cardiovascular effects include arrhythmias, hypertension or hypotension and circulatory collapse. Gastrointestinal symptoms include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea and abdominal cramps. Fatal poisoning is usually preceded by convulsions and coma.
Lisdexamfetamine and d-amphetamine are not dialyzable.