Geriatric syndromes are difficult to understand due to the complexity of the multiple factors and the synergistic effects of the various risk factors. These situations are called syndromes to emphasize that the combined manifestations are related to a large number of factors.
Geriatric syndromes such as frailty, delirium, urinary incontinence, dizziness, falls, sleep problems, malnutrition, and pain, self-neglect are multifactorial, and associated with substantial morbidity and poor outcomes in clinical practice. They are highly prevalent in older adults, especially frail older people.
Ageing is characterized by the progressive accumulation of damage at the molecular level caused by environmental and metabolically generated free radicals, by spontaneous errors in biochemical reactions, and by nutritional components.
Certain changes such as, gradual decline in glomerular filtration rate, gradual decline in hepatic oxidative metabolism, increase in proportion of body fat, reduction in muscle mass generally occur in the human body in conjunction with the ageing process.
During the process of ageing, a person becomes unprotected against diseases and injuries due to cellular and non-cellular changes such as a decrease in the reserve capacity of organs and systems, a decrease in homeostatic control mechanisms, examples of which include thermoregulation system defects and decreased baroreceptor sensitivity, a decrease in the ability to adapt to environmental factors, and a decrease in the capacity to respond to stress.
Urinary incontinence (UI) is a component of geriatric syndrome and increases treatment and care costs. Urinary incontinence (UI) is associated with poor physical function, poor cognitive function, and higher incidence of depressive symptoms, poor nutritional support, polypharmacy, and a high stool incontinence rate.
Common causes of sleep disorders (SD) may include periodic limb movements, restless legs syndrome, and sleep-related breathing disorders such as apnoea, illness, pain, nocturia, dementia and alcoholism. Depression is the most significant cause of insomnia.
A pressure ulcer (PU) is defined as a localized damage to the skin and underlying soft tissue usually over a bony prominence. It can also be related to a medical or other device and usually occurs as a result of intense and/or prolonged pressure or pressure in combination with shear.
The most common definition of frailty is an age-associated, biological syndrome characterized by decreased biological reserves, due to dysregulation of several physiological systems, which puts an individual at risk when facing minor stressors, and is associated with poor outcomes (i.e., disability, death, and hospitalization). Common signs and symptoms are unintentional weight loss, muscle weakness, fatigue, slow walking speed, and progressive functional decline. Frail older adults are among the most challenging for medical management.
Delirium is a clinical diagnosis that is usually unrecognized and easily overlooked. And can be defined as an acute decline in attention and cognition, is a common, life-threatening and potentially preventable clinical syndrome among persons who are 65 years of age or older.
Osteoporotic hip fractures have a profound impact on the physical health and psychosocial wellbeing of older patients. The incidence of hip fractures in Turkey increased markedly. The MEDOS study in 1988/1989 reported that men and women from Turkey had exceptionally low rates of hip fracture.