XIFAXAN® (rifaximin) tablets

XIFAXAN® (rifaximin) tablets

XIFAXAN® (rifaximin) tablets

XIFAXAN tablets contain rifaximin, a non-aminoglycoside semi-synthetic, nonsystemic antibiotic derived from rifamycin SV. Rifaximin is a structural analog of rifampin. The chemical name for rifaximin is (2S,16Z,18E,20S,21S,22R,23R,24R,25S,26S,27S,28E)-5,6,21,23,25-pentahydroxy-27-methoxy-2,4,11,16,20,22,24,26­octamethyl-2,7-(epoxypentadeca-[1,11,13]trienimino)benzofuro[4,5-e]pyrido[1,2-á]-benzimidazole-1,15(2H)-dione,25­acetate. The empirical formula is C43H51N3O11 and its molecular weight is 785.9.

XIFAXAN tablets for oral administration are film-coated and contain 200 mg or 550 mg of rifaximin.

Inactive ingredients: Each 200 mg tablet contains colloidal silicon dioxide, disodium edetate, glycerol palmitostearate, hypromellose, microcrystalline cellulose, propylene glycol, red iron oxide, sodium starch glycolate, talc, and titanium dioxide. Each 550 mg tablet contains colloidal silicon dioxide, glycerol palmitostearate, microcrystalline cellulose, polyethylene glycol/macrogol, polyvinyl alcohol, red iron oxide, sodium starch glycolate, talc, and titanium dioxide.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of XIFAXAN and other antibacterial drugs, XIFAXAN when used to treat infection should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Travelers’ Diarrhea: XIFAXAN is indicated for the treatment of travelers’ diarrhea (TD) caused by noninvasive strains of Escherichia coli in adults and pediatric patients 12 years of age and older.

Limitations of Use

XIFAXAN should not be used in patients with diarrhea complicated by fever or blood in the stool or diarrhea due to pathogens other than Escherichia coli.

Hepatic Encephalopathy: XIFAXAN is indicated for reduction in risk of overt hepatic encephalopathy (HE) recurrence in adults.

In the trials of XIFAXAN for HE, 91% of the patients were using lactulose concomitantly. Differences in the treatment effect of those patients not using lactulose concomitantly could not be assessed.

XIFAXAN has not been studied in patients with MELD (Model for End-Stage Liver Disease) scores >25, and only 8.6% of patients in the controlled trial had MELD scores over 19. There is increased systemic exposure in patients with more severe hepatic dysfunction.

Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea: XIFAXAN is indicated for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome with diarrhea (IBS-D) in adults.

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Mechanism of Action

Rifaximin is a semi-synthetic derivative of rifampin and acts by binding to the beta-subunit of bacterial DNA-dependent RNA polymerase blocking one of the steps in transcription. This results in inhibition of bacterial protein synthesis and consequently inhibits the growth of bacteria.

Resistance

Resistance to rifaximin is caused primarily by mutations in the rpoB gene. This changes the binding site on DNA dependent RNA polymerase and decreases rifaximin binding affinity, thereby reducing efficacy. Cross-resistance between rifaximin and other classes of antimicrobials has not been observed.

Antibacterial Activity

Rifaximin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections: Aerobic bacteria Gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic and enteroaggregative strains)

Susceptibility Testing

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria, and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Dosage for Travelers’ Diarrhea: The recommended dose of XIFAXAN is one 200 mg tablet taken orally three times a day for 3 days.

Dosage for Hepatic Encephalopathy: The recommended dose of XIFAXAN is one 550 mg tablet taken orally two times a day.

Dosage for Irritable Bowel Syndrome with Diarrhea: The recommended dose of XIFAXAN is one 550 mg tablet taken orally three times a day for 14 days. Patients who experience a recurrence of symptoms can be retreated up to two times with the same dosage regimen.

Administration

XIFAXAN can be taken with or without food.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

XIFAXAN is contraindicated in patients with a hypersensitivity to rifaximin, any of the rifamycin antimicrobial agents, or any of the components in XIFAXAN. Hypersensitivity reactions have included exfoliative dermatitis, angioneurotic edema, and anaphylaxis.

WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

Travelers’ Diarrhea Not Caused by Escherichia coli: XIFAXAN was not found to be effective in patients with diarrhea complicated by fever and/or blood in the stool or diarrhea due to pathogens other than Escherichia coli.

Discontinue XIFAXAN if diarrhea symptoms get worse or persist more than 24 to 48 hours and alternative antibiotic therapy should be considered.

XIFAXAN is not effective in cases of travelers’ diarrhea due to Campylobacter jejuni. The effectiveness of XIFAXAN in travelers’ diarrhea caused by Shigella spp. and Salmonella spp. has not been proven. XIFAXAN should not be used in patients where Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella spp., or Salmonella spp. may be suspected as causative pathogens.

Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea: Clostridium difficile-associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including XIFAXAN, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon which may lead to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria: Prescribing XIFAXAN for travelers’ diarrhea in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Severe (Child-Pugh Class C) Hepatic Impairment: There is increased systemic exposure in patients with severe hepatic impairment. The clinical trials were limited to patients with MELD scores <25. Therefore, caution should be exercised when administering XIFAXAN to patients with severe hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh Class C).

Concomitant Use with P-glycoprotein Inhibitors: Concomitant administration of drugs that are P-glycoprotein (P-gp) inhibitors with XIFAXAN can substantially increase the systemic exposure to rifaximin. Caution should be exercised when concomitant use of XIFAXAN and a P-gp inhibitor such as cyclosporine is needed. In patients with hepatic impairment, a potential additive effect of reduced metabolism and concomitant P-gp inhibitors may further increase the systemic exposure to rifaximin.

DRUG INTERACTIONS

P-glycoprotein Inhibitors: Concomitant administration of cyclosporine, an inhibitor of P-gp and OATPs significantly increased the systemic exposure of rifaximin. In patients with hepatic impairment, a potential additive effect of reduced metabolism and concomitant P-gp inhibitors may further increase the systemic exposure to rifaximin. Caution should be exercised when concomitant use of XIFAXAN and a P-gp inhibitor such as cyclosporine is needed.

Warfarin: Changes in INR have been reported postmarketing in patients receiving rifaximin and warfarin concomitantly. Monitor INR and prothrombin time. Dose adjustment of warfarin may be needed to maintain target INR range. See prescribing information for warfarin.

CYP3A4 Substrates: An in vitro study has suggested that rifaximin induces CYP3A4. However, in patients with normal liver function, XIFAXAN at the recommended dosing regimen is not expected to induce CYP3A4. It is unknown whether rifaximin can have a significant effect on the pharmacokinetics of concomitant CYP3A4 substrates in patients with reduced liver function who have elevated rifaximin concentrations.

USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

Pregnancy: There are no available data on XIFAXAN use in pregnant women to inform any drug-associated risks. Teratogenic effects were observed in animal reproduction studies following administration of rifaximin to pregnant rats and rabbits during organogenesis at doses approximately 0.9 to 5 times and 0.7 to 33 times, respectively of the recommended human doses of 600 mg to 1,650 mg per day. In rabbits, ocular, oral and maxillofacial, cardiac, and lumbar spine malformations were observed. Ocular malformations were observed in both rats and rabbits at doses that caused reduced maternal body weight gain.

Lactation: There is no information regarding the presence of rifaximin in human milk, the effects of rifaximin on the breastfed infant, or the effects of rifaximin on milk production. The development and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for XIFAXAN and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from XIFAXAN or from the underlying maternal condition.

Pediatric Use: The safety and effectiveness of XIFAXAN has not been established in pediatric patients less than 12 years of age with TD or in patients less than 18 years of age for HE and IBS-D.

Geriatric Use: Of the total number of patients in the clinical study of XIFAXAN for HE, 19% of patients were 65 and over, while 2% were 75 and over. In the clinical studies of IBS-D, 11% of patients were 65 and over, while 2% were 75 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects for either indication. Clinical studies with XIFAXAN for TD did not include sufficient numbers of patients aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently than younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

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Renal Impairment: The pharmacokinetics of rifaximin in patients with impaired renal function has not been studied.

Hepatic Impairment: Following administration of XIFAXAN 550 mg twice daily to patients with a history of hepatic encephalopathy, the systemic exposure (i.e., AUCτ) of rifaximin was about 10-, 14-, and 21-fold higher in those patients with mild (Child-Pugh Class A), moderate (Child-Pugh Class B) and severe (Child-Pugh Class C) hepatic impairment, respectively, compared to that in healthy volunteers. No dosage adjustment is recommended because rifaximin is presumably acting locally. Nonetheless, caution should be exercised when XIFAXAN is administered to patients with severe hepatic impairment.

OVERDOSAGE

No specific information is available on the treatment of overdosage with XIFAXAN. In clinical studies at doses higher than the recommended dose (greater than 600 mg per day for TD, greater than 1,100 mg per day for HE or greater than 1,650 mg per day for IBS-D), adverse reactions were similar in subjects who received doses higher than the recommended dose and placebo. In the case of overdosage, discontinue XIFAXAN, treat symptomatically, and institute supportive measures as required.

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